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Full text of "Washington's political legacies. To which is annexed an appendix, containing an account of his illness, death, and the national tributes of respect paid to his memory, with a biographical outline of his life and character"

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* HBoston, 



- ;.L.V VOHK 

•^^r HORARY 

T,Li/ -«,4TlOI»3. 

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In oiFering this Volume to your 
Patronage, and presenting it to the 
World under the Sanftion of your 
NAME — a Name as endeared by Vir- 
tues, as illustrious from Glory — we 
feel that we are giving interest to 
excellence, and attaching tenderness 
to pre-eminence. 

In partaking the Solicitude, al- 
leviating the Caresi,\:and.'".cn^'a;gin'g 
the Confidence of that-: irrc^at,: -and 
disinterested Mind, wliic'ii 'speaks' in 
these pages, you have hd-wclll.'krt^wn 
to appreciate its Endowments, and 
to profit from the high Example, as 
to prefer the patriotic Duties to the 
selfifii Sensibilities, by resigning, to 
the claim of a Nation, that dear and 


solitary Sentiment, whose Hope, 
more strong than Death, would des- 
cend to tlie Tomb, mingle with the 
Ashes, and share the Sepulchre of 
departed aneeT:ion. — Nor will you be 
divided — the Poet, and the Moralist, 
while they contemplate the secluded 
Hcro^ will perpetuate the Charm that 
gladdened, and the Virtue that re- 
warded every effort of a mind,which, 
commanding victory, and obtaining 
glory, could controul with temper- 
ance, and possess with moderation ; 
and wh ich, at the dangerous summit 
of popular applause, was neither daz- 
]ed by elevation, nor diminished by 
distance^... ..,. 

< • c 

• »• t 

'. .-TiO'-yori^, the first mourner of a 
bereaved People, the melancholy 
consolation will remain, that a whole 
nation venerates your Virtues, and 
partakes your afflictions — Indeed ev- 
ery part of the civilizxd Earth will 
commemorate that excellence which 


cannot die — that mortal, who, born 
for the human race, crowned with 
its highest Homage, and graced with 
its best Exakation, still instrufls, and 
inspires, by the words of Wisdom, 
falling from the lips of immortal- 

With sympathy,sacred and devo- 
ted, with respeft, veneration and gra- 
titude, w^e remain. Madam, your obe- 
dient humble servants, 




1 HE compilers of this volume think proper 
to declare, that, in collettin^ i\\c papers vid mare- 
rials which coti&titute ts co tents, th;jy have used 
only t^osc nhich the immortal Washington wrote, 
when it was in his great and wise mind to instrudl:, 
dirc£^, and admonish his countrymen : they con- 
ceive that to have departed from this rule might 
have led them to matter, sufTiciently abundant, to 
fill ma' y volumes, and not so immediately connected 
w th the public expeclatioti. In this volume will be 
found all those great truths, and virtuous recommen- 
dations, which, it cheribhjd and pra61ised, must lead 
this nation to prosperity, happiness, and glory : the 
author of tlic b:ogr;iphical outline of Geneva! Wash- 
ington, which forms a part of this work, is confessed- 
ly inticbtrd, for his dates to the valuable publications 
of the rev. Tr. Mor^^e, Miss Hannah Adams, and 
some Eurojjean prints. 

THE origiir,)l proposal for publishing this work, 
promised The Prclido't's letter of condolence to IVIrs. 
Washing roN , but this could not be obtained — we 
arc. however, authorised in sayin>:, that his message 
to ConL;iess, comu.unicaiing that virtuous lady's ans- 
wer, contains the spirit o.t it. 

Boston, March i2co. 


Dedication to Mrs. Washington - - 3 

Advertisement --------- -6 

Gen IVashitigton^s appointment to the command 
of the American army, in 1775 - - - - p 

His order on the cessation of hostilities - - 1 1 

His circular letter to the Governors oi the several 
states, in 17 83-- -- -- - -16 

The address of Congress on the acknov/ledgment 
of his eminent services - - - - - 33 

His answer -------- - --39 

His farewe! address to the army _ . - - - 41 

His address to Congress on resigning his military 
commi sion ----- - - - -50 

Their answer ---- --_.- -52 

His inaugural speech to Congress, in 1789 - 55 

His valedicliory address to his fellow citizens - 64 
His letter to President Adams, on accepting the 
command of the American army, in 1798 - 98 

Gen. Marshall's address to the speaker of the 
house of representatives, on the report of the 
death of Gen. Washingtoti - - - - - 103 

The president's message to Congress, enclosing 
Col. Lear's letter, announcing the death of 
Gen. IVashingtsn -- ---- -104 

Gen. Marshall's second address to Congress - 105 

Resolutions of Congress respefting the manner of 
paying suitable honours to the memory of Gen. 
Washington - - - ------108 

Address of condolence frojn the house of re- 
presentatives to the president - - - 109 
His answer - ------ - - -no 


Address ot condolence from the senate to the pre- 
sident --- -_ -._ -no 
His answer -- - - _-____ii2 

Rcfolutions of Congress for perpetuating the mr- 

mory of Gen. lyaihingion - - - " ^'5 

Oci%. Lr/i Eulo<:y, pronounced before the national 

legibl.uurt __._ __ --118 

The presidents* proclamation - - - _ - 13C 

Particular account of the last illness oiGcD.JVash- 

'H^^ 136 

His funeral - ----__» . -iqo 

The president's messaj^c to Congress, communi- 
cating Mrs. Washington s letter - - - 144 
Biographical outline of Gen- /^a//^/V;^/&« - . 145 
Anonymous address to the American army, in 

'"^3 - - - - 192 

Gen. H'ashir.gtons address to the army in answer 

to this artful and insidious address . - 199 



Thursday, June 15,17 7 5- 3 

IVESOLVED, That a General be ap- 
pointed to command all the continental for- 
ces, raised, or to be raised, for the defence of 
American liberty. 

THAT five hundred dollars per month 
be allowed for the pay and expences of the 

THE Congress then proceeded to the choice 
of a General, by ballot, and G£OieG£ Washing- 
TON^ ES^ was unanimously elected. 

Friday, June 16, 1775. 

THE President informed col. Washington 
that the Congress had, yesterday, unanimous- 
ly made choice of him to be general and com- 
mander in chief of the American forces, and 
requested he would accept of that employ- 
ment ; to which col. Washington, stand- 
ing in his place, as a member of the house, 
answered : b 

10 \^'ASMlNC;rON 


" JitJf, PRBSlDENTy 

** THOUGH I im truly sensible of the high 
honour done inc in this appointment, yet I 
led great tlisircss, from a consciousness that 
my abilities and military experience may not 
be cquil to the extensive and important trust: 
however, as the Congress desire it, I will en- 
ler upon the momentous duty, and exert 
every power I possess, in their service, for 
upport of the glorious cause. I beg they 
w ill accept my most cordial thanks for this 
dibtinguished testimony of their approbation. 

^*iiLi,lest some event should happen 
unfavourable to my reputation, I beg it may 
be remembered by every gentleman in the 
room, that I, this day, declare with the ut- 
most sincerity, I do not think myself equal 
to the command I am honoured with. 

*' WITH respect to pay, sir, I must beg leave 
to assure Congress, that as no pecuniary con- 
sideration could have tempted me to accept 
this arduous employment, at the expence of 
my domestic ease and happiness, I do not 
wish to make any profit from it. I will 
keep an exact account of my expences. Those 
I doubt not they will discharge, and that 
is all I desire." 



Head- Quarters, Ne^-burg, April i8, 1783. 

1 HE commander in chief orders the 
cessation of hostilities between the United 
States of America and the king of Great- 
Britain, to be publickly proclaimed to-mor- 
row at 1 2 o'clock, at the new building ; and 
that the proclamation which will be commu- 
nicated herewith, be rend to-m.orrow even- 
ing, at the head of every regiment and corps 
of the armiy ; after which, the chaplains, 
with the several brigades, will render thanks 
to Almighty God for all his mercies, partic- 
ularly for his over-ruling the wrath of man 
to his own glory, and causing the rage ct 
^var to cease amiongst the nations. 

ALTHOUGH the proclamation before allu- 
ded to, extends only to th-e prohibition of 
hostilities, and not to the annunciation of a 
general peace, yet it must afford the most 
rational and sincere satisfaction to every be- 
nevolent mind, as it puts a period to a long 
and doubtful contest — stops the effusion ot 
human blood — opens the prospect to a more 
splendid scene — and, like another jnorning 

12 Washington's 

ttir, promises the approacli of a brighter 
day than has hitherto illuminated this west- 
ern hemisphere ! on such a happy day — a 
day which is the harbinger of peace — a day 
which completes the eighth year of the war^ 
it would be ingratitude not to rejoice : it 
would be insensibility n(>t to participate in 
the general felicity. 

THE commander in chief, far from en- 
deavouring to stifle the feelings of joy in 
his own bosom, offers his most cordial con- 
gratulations on the occasion, to all the offi- 
cers of every denomination — to all the 
troops of the United States in general, and 
in particular to those gallant and persever- 
ing men, who had resolved to defend the 
rights of tlieir invaded country so long as 
the war should continue ; for these are the 
men who ought to be considered as the 
pride and boast of the American army, and 
who, crowned with well-earned laurels, may 
soon withdraw from the field of glory to the 
more tranquil walks of civil life. 

'WHILE the General recollects the almost 
infinite variety of scenes through which we 
have passed with a mixture of pleasure, as- 
tonishment and gratitude—while he con- 


templates the prospects before us with rap* 
ture — he cannot help wishing that all the 
brave nnen, of whatever condition they may- 
be, who have shared in the toils and dangers 
of effecling this glorious revolution, of rescu- 
ing millions from the hand of oppression, 
and of laying the foundation of a great em- 
pire, might be impressed with a proper idea 
of the dignified part they have been called to 
2S: (under the smiles of providence) on the 
stage of human affairs ; for happy, thrice 
happy, shall they be pronounced hereafter, 
who have contributed any thing, who have 
performed the meanest office in erecting this 
stupendous fabric cf Freedom and Empire^ on 
the broad basis of independency ; who have 
assisted in protecting the rights of human 
nature, and establishing an asylum for the 
poor and oppressed of all nations and reli- 

THE glorious task for which we first flew 
to arms, being thus accomplished — the liber- 
ties of our country being fully acknowledg- 
ed and firmly secured, by the smiles of Heav- 
en, on the purity of our cause, and the hon- 
est exertions of a feeble people, determined 
to be free, against a powerful nation disposed 
to oppress them ; and the character of thciC 

14 uashinc/ion's 

who have persevered through every extremi- 
ty of hardship, su fieri ng, ;ind danger, being 
immortalized by tlic illustrious appellation of 
the Patriot Army^ notliing now remains but 
for the adors of this mighty scene to pre- 
serve a perfecl, unvarying consistency of 
charader through the very last ad ; to close 
the drama vith applause ; and to retire from 
the military theatre with the same approba- 
tion of angels and men, which have crowned 
all their former virtuous aclions. 

i-OR this purpose, no disorder or licen- 
tiousness must be tolerated ; every conside- 
rate and well-disposed soldier must remem- 
ber, it win be absolutely necessary to wait 
with patience, until peace shall be declared, 
or Congress shall be enabled to take proper 
measures for the security of the public stores^ 
&:c. As soon as these arrangements shall be 
made, the General is confident there will be 
no delay in discharging, with every mark of 
distinction and honour, all the men enlisted 
for the war, who will then have faithfully 
performed their engagements wAxh the pub- 
lic. The General has already interested him- 
self in their behalf ; and he thinks he need 
not repeat the assurances of his disposition 
to be useful to them on the present^ and eve- 



ry other proper occasion. In the mean time 
he is determined that no military negledls or 
excesses shall go unpunished, while he re- 
tains the command of the army. 

THE adjutant-general will have such 
working-parties detached to assist in making 
the preparation for a general rejoicing, as the 
chief engineer, with the army, shall call for ; 
and the quarter-master-general will also fur- 
nish such materials as he may want. The 
quarter-master-general will, without delay, 
procure such a number of discharges to 
be printed as will be sufficient for all the men 
enlisted for the war ; he will please to apply 
to head-quarters for the form. 

AN extra ration of liquor to be issued to 
every man to-morrow, to drink PERPETU- 



ii' ■: i 1 r.XCLl.LE'NCY GEORGE H^j4SH/NGT0iV^ 

Hcad-Qtiarlcr% Ncwburg, June 18, 178^. 


-l HE great object for which I had the 
honor to hold an appointment in the service 
of my country, being accomplished, I am now 
preparing to refign it into the hands of con- 
grcss,and return to that doincstic retirement, 
whicli, it is well known, 1 left with the great- 
est reludance ; a retirement for which I have 
never ceased to sigh through a long and pain* 
ful absence, in which (remote from the noise 
and trouble of the world) I meditate to pass 
the remainder of life in a state of undisturb- 
ed repose ; but, before I carry this resolution 
into efFecl, I think it a duty incumbent on 
mc to make this my last official communica- 
tion, to congratulate you on the glorious e- 
vents which Heaven has been pleased to pro- 
duce in our favour, to offer my sentiments 
respe(fi:ing some important subjefts, which 
appear to me to be intimately conne6i:ed wdth 
the tranquillity of the United States, to take 
my leave of your Excellency as a public cha- 


racier, and to give my final blessing to that 
country in whose service I have spent the 
prime of my life ; for whose sake I have 
consumed so many anxious days and watch- 
ful nights ; and whose happiness, being ex- 
tremely dear to me, will always constitute no 
inconsiderable part of my own_. 

IMPRESSED with the liveliest sensibility on 
this pleasing occasion, I will claim the indul- 
gence of dilating the more copiously on the 
subject of our mutual felicitation. When we 
consider the magnitude of the prize we con- 
tended for, the doubtful nature of the contest, 
and the favourable manner in which it has 
terminated ; we shall find the greatest possi- 
ble reason for gratitude and rejoicing : this 
is a theme that will afford infinite delight to 
every benevolent and liberal mind, whether 
the event in contemplation be considered as 
a source of present enjoyment, or the parent 
of future happiness ; and we shall have equal 
occasion to felicitate ourselves on the lot 
which providence has assigned us, whether 
wc view it in a natural, a political, or moral 
point of view. 

THE citizens of America, placed in the 
most enviable condition, as the sole lords and 



proprietors of a v ist tracl of continent, com- % 
prchcnding all tlic various soils and climates 
of the world, .ind abouncHn^^ with all the nec- 
essaries and conven icncies of lite, arc now, by 
ihe late satibfadory pacification, acknowledged 
to he possessed of absolute freedom and inde- 
pendency; tlicy arc, from this period tobecon- 
sidcrcd as the actors on a most conspicuous 
theatre, which bcems to be peculiarly design- 
ed by providence for the display of Imnian 
greatness and felicity : here they are not only 
surrounded witli every thing that can contri- 
bute to the completion of private and domes- 
tic enjoyment, but heaveji has crowned all 
its other blessings, by giving a surer oppor- 
tunity for political happiness than any other 
nation has ever been favoured with. Noth- 
ing can illustrate these observations more 
forcibly than the recolleclion of the happy 
c'oi-ijiinclure of times and circumstances, un- 
der wliicli our republic assumed its rank a- 
mong the nations. The foundation of our 
empire was not laid in a gloomy age of igno- 
rance and superstition, but at an epoch 
when the rights of mankind v/ere better un- 
derstood, and more clearly defined than at 
any former period : researches of the human 
mind after social happiness have been carried 


to a great extent : the treasures of knowl- 
edge acquired by the labours of philosophers, 
sages, and legislators, through a long succes- 
sion of years, are laid open for us, and their 
collected wisdom may be happily applied in 
the 'establishment of our forms of govern- 
ment : the free cultivation of letters, the un- 
bounded extension of commerce, the pro- 
gressive refinement of manners, the grow- 
ing liberality of sentiment, and, above all, 
the pure and benign light of revelation, have 
had a meliorating influence on m.ankind, and 
increased the blessings of society. At this 
auspicious period the UnitedStates came into 
existence as a nation, and if their citizens 
should not be completely free and happy, 
the fault will be entirely their own. 

SUCH is our situation, and fuch are our 
prospects ; but notvWthstanding the cup of 
blessing is thus reached out to us — notwith- 
standing happiness is ours, if we have a dis- 
position to seize the occasion, and make it 
our own ; yet it appears to me, there is an 
option ctiil left to the United States of Amer- 
ica,whether they will be respeclable and pros- 
perous, or contemptible and miserable as a 
nation. 71iis is the time of their political pro- 

30 WASHINcnON's 

btrtpn i tins is the moment, wlicn the eyes of 
the whole world arc turned upon them ; 
this is the time to estiiblifli or ruin their na. 
tional character forever ; this is the favoura- 
ble moment to give such a tone to the fede^ 
ral government, as will enable it to answer 
the ends of its institution ; or this may be 
the ill-fated moment for relaxing the pow- 
ers of the union, annihilating the cement of 
the confederation, and exposing us to become 
the sport of European politics, which may 
play one state against another, to prevent 
their growing importance, and to serve their 
own interested purposes. For, according to 
the system of policy the states shall adopt at 
this moment, they will stand or fall ; and, 
by their confirmation or lapse, it is yet to be 
decided, whether the revolution must ulti- 
mately be considered as a blessing or a curse; 
a blessing' or a curse, not to the present age 
alone, for with our fate will the destiny of 
unborn millions be involved. 

WITH this coiviclion of the importance 
of the present crisis, silence in me would 
be a crime. I will therefore speak to your 
Excellency the language of freedom and sin- 
cerity, without disguise. I am aware, how- 


ever, those who differ from me in political 
sentiments, may perhaps remark, I am step- 
ping out of the proper line of my duty ; and 
they may possibly ascribe to arrogance or 
ostentation, what I know is alone the result 
of the purest intention ; but the rectitude of 
my own heart, which disdains such unworthy 
motives — the part I have hitherto acted in 
life — the determination I have formed of not 
taking any fhare in public bufmess hereafter 
— the ardent desire I feel and shall continue 
to manifest, of quietly enjoying in private 
life, after all the toils of war, the benefits of 
a wise and liberal government — will, I flat- 
ter myself, sooner or later, convince my 
countrymen, that I could have no sinister 
views in delivering, with so little reserve, 
the opinions contained in this Addl'ess. 

^r THERE are four things which I humbly 
conceive are essential to the well-being, I may 
even venture to say, to the existence of the 
United States, as an independent power. 

\ft, AN indissoluble union of the states 
under one federal head. '\ 


idl^. A sacred regard to public justice. 

3<i/y. THE adoption of a proper peace es* 
tablishment. And, 

22 Washington's 

4//?//. THE prevalence of that paciiic and 
tncncily disposition among the people of the 
l)iiiicd.Statc>, which will induce ihcm to for- 
get tlicir local prejudices and policics,to make 
those mutual concessions which a^e requisite 
to the general prosperity, and, in Jiome in- 
glanccs, to sacrifice their individual advanta- 
ges to the interest of the community. 

J liL^iL. .ij c liic pillars on which the glori- 
ous fabric of our independency and national 
cliaracfcr must be supported. Liberty is the 
basis, and whoever would dare to sap the 
foundation, or overturn the structure, un- 
der whatever specious pretext he may at- 
tempt it, will merit the bitterest execra- 
tion and the severest punishment w^hich can 
be inflicled by his injured country. 

ON the three first articles I will make a 
few observations, leaving the last to thegood 
sense and serious consideration of those im- 
mediitely concerned. 

UNDER the first head, although it may 
not be neccffaiy or proper for me in this 
place to enter into a particular disquisition 
of tlie principles of the union, and to take 
up tlic great question \vliich has been fr€- 



' -—^ ■* ---^«--»*^ 

quently agitated, whether it be expedient 
and requisite for the states to delegate a large 
proportion of power to Congress, or not ; 
yet it will be a part of my duty, and that of 
every true patriot, to assert, withot reserve, 
and to insist upon the following positior 

That unless the states will suffer CGn2:re3s to 

I — — — ~ ■ w — — , 

exercise those prerogatives thev are undoubt- 

^ — ■ — -^ .. — — ■ — - — — ^ ^ -~ — - — 

edly invested with by the constitut ion, every 
thing must v ery rapidly tend to an.u 'c hy and 
confus ion. — That it is indispe nsable to the 

^j^EP^^^i^— jj^-j^ ^^^^^^ ^^ states, that thcre^ 
should be lodo;ed, somewhere, a supreme 

powe r, to regulate a nd g^overn the general 

concerns of the confedera ted republic, with- 

cut which the union cannot be of lon^r du- 

ration. — ^That there must be a faithful and 

m . m l l P 

pointed c cmpliaxicejonj Lhe pa rt of every state 

^ yith the^late) proposals and demands of Con- 

gress, or the most fatal consec}ue nces\vill en- 

sue, — That whatever measures have a ten- 

dency to dissolve the union, or contribute to 
• _ — — — ■ — -'— — — ., ..^ii«i . 

violate or lessen the sovereign authority, 
ought to be considered as hosti le to the lib- 
erty and independen cy of America, and th c^ 
authors of them trea ted accordingb '.— ^^d 
lastly, thaFunless we can be en abl ed by tlic 
concurrence of the states, to participate of th'? 

S4 Washington's 

fruits of the revolution, and enjoy the cssen- 
thl benefi ts of cIviL^ ficicty».ind££xibrinj)f 
government so free and uncorrupted, so hap- 
pily guarded a^^inst the danger of oppres- 
sion, asjhas been devised and ad op ted by the 
articles of confederation^^ it will be a subjed 
of regret^ that s;o much blood and trea sure 
Jiavc bccn_la\^shcd fo£jio^_pur2os^j_that__^^ 
many sufferings have been enc ountered with- 
out a compensation, and t hat so many^ sacri- 
fices have been made in vain. Many other 
consid erations might here be adduced to 
prove, that without aiTcntire conformity to 
the sp irit of the union, we cannot exist as an 
independent power. It wi ll be sufficient for 
myjTurpose to mention but o^^e ortwo, 
which seem to me of the greatest importance. 
It is only in our united cliarader, as an eni7 

pire, that our independence is acknowledged, 
tKat our power can be regarded, or our cre^ 
JiT's upportc'cl among foreign nations. The 
treaties of ^1^ European jiowers with the 
United~^tates of America, will have no va^^ 
lidity on the dissolution_of the uni o n.^^ ^^g^ 
shal l be left near ly in a state of nature ; or 
we may find, by our own unhappy experi-^ 
ence, that there is a natural and necessary;^ 
progression from the ex treme of anarchy to 



the extreme of tyranny ; and th at arbitr ary 
power is most easily established o n the ruins 
or liberty abu sed to licentiousness. '' 

AS to the second article, which respects 
the performance of public justice, Congress 
have, in their late Address to the United 
States, almost exliausted the subjeci: ; they 
have explained their ideas so fully, and have 
enforced the oblig:ations the states are under 
to render complete justice to all the pub- 
lic creditors, with so much dignity and ener- 
gy, that in my opinion, no real friend to the 

honour and independency of America can 
hesitate a single moment respecting the pro- 
priety of complying with the just and hon- 
ourable micasures proposed. If their argu- 
ments do not produce conviction, I know of 
nothing that will have greater influence, es- 
pecially when we reflect that the system re- 
ferred to, being the result of the collefled 
wisdom of the continent, must be esteemed, 
if not perfect, certainly the least obje<5ti(.na- 
ble of any that could be devised ; and that, 
if it should not be carried into immetllate 
execution, a national bankruptcy, with all 
its deplorable consequences, will take place, 
before any diiferent plan can possibly be pro- 


26 \vashin(;ton's 

posed or :ui()j)toti ; so pressing arc the prc- 
.t circumstances, and such is the alterna- 
tive now ofTc red to tlic states. 

THi: ability of the country to discharge 
the debts which have been incurred in its 
defence, is not to be doubted. An inclina- 
tion, I flatter myself, will not be wanting ; 
the path of our duty is plain before us ; 
honesty will be found, on every experiment, 
to be the best and only true policy. Let us 
then, as a nation, be just ; let us fulfil the 
public contrails wliich Congress had un- 
doubtedly a right to make for the pur- 
pose of carrying on the war, ^vith the same 
good faith we suppose ourselves bound to 
perform our private engagements. In the 
mean time let an attention to the cheerful 
performance of their proper business, as in- 
dividuals, and as members of society, be 
earnestly inculcated on the citizens of Amer- 
ica ; then will they strengthen the bands of 
government, and be happy under its pro- 
tection. Every one will reap the fruit of his 
labours ; every one will enjoy his own ac- 
quisitions, without molestation and without 


IN this state of absolute treedom and per- 
feci security, who will grudge to yield a 
very little of his property to support the 
common interests of society, and ensure the 
protection of government r who does not 
remember the frequent declarations at the 
commencement of the war, that we should 
be completely satisfied, if at the expense of 
one half, we could defend the remainder of 
our possessions ? where is the man to be 
found, who wishes to remain indebted for 
the defence of his ovv^n person aud property 
to the exertions, the bravery, and the blood 
of others, without making one generous ef- 
fort to pay the debt of honour and of grati- 
tude ? in what part of the continent shall we 
find any man, or body of men, who would 
not blush to stand up, and propose measures 
purposely calculated to rob the soldier of his 
stipend, and the public creditor of his due ? 
And were it possible that such a flagrant in- 
stance of injustice could ever happen, would 
it not excite the general indignation, and tend 
to bring down upon the authors of fuch 
measures, the aggravated vengeance of heav- 
en ? If, after all, a spirit of disunion, or a 
temper of obftinacy and perverseness should 
manifest itself in any of the states ; if such 

sS Washington's 

an ungracious disposition lh(;ulci attempt to 
frustrate all the happy eflbcls that might be 
cxpcdcd to flow from tlie union ; if there 
should be a refusal to comply with the re- 
quisitions for funds to discharge the annual 
interest of the public debts, and if that refu- 
sal should revive all those jealousies, and 
produce all those evils which are now hap- 
pi 1 y rem o ved — Congress, jwho^ have iii all 
their transactions shcNvn a great degree of 
magnanimity and justice, will stand .justified_ 
in tlie sip^ht of God and m an ! And that S tate 
I alone,)vvhich puts itself in opposition to the 
aggregate wisdom of the continent, and fol- 
lows such mistaken and pernicious councils, 
will be responsible for all the consequences. 

FOR my own part, conscious of having 
zd:cd, while a servant of the public, in the 
manner I conceived best suited to promote 
the real interests of my country ; having, 
in consequence of my fixed belief, in some 
measure, pledged myself to the army, that 
their country would finally do them com- 
plete and ample justice, and not willing to 
conceal any instance of my official condu<51: 
from the eyes of the world, I have thought 
proper to transmit to your excellency the in- 


^^mmmmma. — ^m« ■■■■m ■iii iri~n- ■ mi r 

closed colkclion of papers, relative to the 
haii-pay and commutation granted by Con- 
gress to the officers of the army : from these 
communications, my decided sentiment will 
be clearly comprehended, together with the 
conclusive reasons, which induced me at an 
early period, to reccommend the adoption of 
this measure in the most earnest and serious 
manner. As the proceedings of Congress, the 
army, and myself, are open to all, and con- 
tain, in my opinion, sufficient information 
to remove the prejudice and errors which 
may have been entertained by any, I think 
it unnecessary to say any thing more, than 
just to observe, that the resolutions of Con- 
gress, nov/ alluded to, are as undoubtedly 
and absolutely binding upon the United States 
as the most solemn acls of confederation or 

AS to the idea, which I am informed, has in 
some instances prevailed, that the half-pay 
and commutation are to be regarded mere- 
ly in the odious light of a pension, it ought 
to be exploded forever : that provision 
fiiould be viewed, as it really was, a reasona- 
ble compensation offered by Congress, at a 
time when they had nothing else to give to 

JO Washington's 

officers of the army, for services then to be 
performed : ii was the only means to pre- 
vent a total derileclion of the service ; it 
was a part of their hire. 1 may be allowed 
to say, it was the price of their blood, and 
of your independency ; it is therefore more 
than a common debt, it is a debt of honour ; 
it can never be considered as a pension or 
gratuity, nor cancelled until it is fairly dis- 

WITH regard to tiie distinction between of- 
ficers and soldiers, it is sufficient that the u- 
niform experience of every nation of the 
world, combined with our own, proves the 
utility and propriety of the discrimination. 
Rewards, in proportion to the aid the pub- 
lic draws from them, are unquestionably due 
to all its servants. In some lines, the sol- 
diers have perhaps generally had as ample 
compensation for their services, by the large 
bounties which have been paid them, as their 
officers will receive in the proposed commu- 
tation ; in others, if besides the donation of 
land, the payment of arrearages of cloatHing 
and w^ages (in which articles all the compo- 
nent parts of the army must be put upon 
the same footing) we take into the estimate. 



the bounties many of the soldiers have re- 
ceived, and the gratuity of one year's full 
pay, which is promised to all, possibly their 
situation (every circunr.stance being duly 
considered) will not be deemed less eligible 
than that of the officers. Should a farther 
reward, hovv'ever, be judged equitable, I will 
venture to assert, no man will enjoy greater 
satisfaction than myself, in an exemption 
from taxes for a limited time (which has 
been petitioned for in somx instances) or a- 
ny other adequate imimunity or compensa- 
tion granted to the brave defenders of their 
country's cause : but neither the adoption 
or rejection of this proposition will, in any 
manner affect, much less militate against the 
acl of Congress, by which they have offered 
five years full pay, in lieu of the half-pay for 
life, vv'hich had been before promised to thi^ 
ofEcers of the army. 

BEFORE I conclude the subject on public 
juflice, I cannot omit to m.ention the obliga- 
tions this country is under to that m;eritori- 
ous class of veterans, the non-commissioned 
officers and privates, who have been dis- 
charged for inability, in consequence of the 
resolution of Congress, of the 23d of April, 



1782, on an annual pension for life. Their 
peculiar suflorings, their singular merits and 
claims to that provision need only to be 
known, to interest the feelings of humanity, 
in their behalf. Nothing but a punctual 
payment of their annual allowance can res- 
cue them from the most complicated mise- 
ry ; and nothing could be a more melan- 
choly and distressing sight, than to behold 
those who have shed their blood, or lost 
their limbs in the service of their country, 
without a shelter, without a friend, and 
without the means of obtaining any of the 
comforts or necessaries of life, compelled to 
beg their daily bread from door to door. 
Suffer me to recommend those of this de- 
scription, belonging to your state, to the 
warmest patronage of your excellency and 
your legislature. 

IT is necessary to say but a few words on 
the third topic which was proposed, and 
which regards particularly the defence of the 
republic. As there can be little doubt but 
Congress will recommend a proper peace es- 
tablishment for the United States, in w^hich 
a due attention will be paid to the impor- 
tance of placing the militia of the union up- 


on a regular and respectable footing ; if this 
should be the case, I should beg leave to urge 
the great advantage of it in the strongest 

THE militia of this countrv m.ust be con- 
sidered as the palladium of our security, and 
the first eifeclual resort in case of hostility : 
it is essential, therefore, that the same system 
should pervade the whole ; that the forma- 
tion and discipline of the militia of the con- 
tinent should be absolutely uniform ; and 
that the same species of arms, accoutrements, 
and military apparatus, should be introduced 
in every part of the United States. No one, 
who has not learned it from experience, can 
conceive the difficulty, expense, and confu- 
sion which result from a contrary system, or 
the vague arrangements which have hitherto 

IF, in treating of political points, a great- 
er latitude than usual has been taken in the 
course of this Address,the importance of the 
crisis, and the magnitude of the objects in 
discussion, must be my apolog}^ : it is, how- 
ever, neither my wish nor expectation, that 
the preceding observations- should claim any 



-.| Washington's 

regard, except so far as they shall appear to 
be du^ated by a good intention ; consonant 
to the ininnilable rules of justice ; calculated 
to produce a liberal system of policy, and 
founded on ^ hatever experience may have 
been acquired by a long and close attention 
to public business. Here I might speak witli 
more confidence, from my aclual observa- 
tions ; and if it would not swell this letter 
(already too prolix) beyond the bounds I 
had prescribed myself, I could demonstrate 
to every mind, open to convidion, that in 
less time, and with much less expense than 
lias been incurred, the war m.ight have been 
brought to the same happy conclusion, if the 
resources of the continent could have been 
properly called forth ; that the distresses and 
disappointm.cnts which have very often oc- 
curred, liave, in too many instances, result- 
ed more from a w^ant of energy in the conti- 
nental government, than a deficiency of 
means in the particular states : that the in- 
cilicacy of the m.easures, arising from the 
want of an adequate authority in the su- 
preme power, from a partial compliance with 
the requisitions of Congress in some of the 
states, and from a failure of pundluality in 
others, while they tended to damp the zeal 



t)f those who were more willing to exert 
themselves, served also to accumulate the 
expenses of the war, and to frustrate the best 
concerted plans ; and that the discourage- 
ment occasioned by the complicated difficul- 
ties and embarrassments, in which our af- 
fairs were by this means involved, would 
have long ago produced the dissolution of 
any army, less patient, less virtuous, and less 
persevering than that which I have had the 
honour to command. But while I mention 
those things, which are notorious fadts, as 
the defects of our federal constitution, par- 
ticularly in the prosecution of a war, I beg it 
may be understood, that as I have ever taken 
a pleasure in gratefully acknowledging the 
assistance and support I have derived from 
every class of citizens ; so shall I always be 
happy to do justice to the unparalleled exer. 
tions of the individual states, on many inter- 
esting occasions. 

I HAVE thus freely disclosed what I wished 
to make known before I surrendered up my 
public trust to those who committed it to 
me : the task is now accomplished. I now 
bid adieu to your excellency, as the chief 
magistrate of your state ; at the same time 

^6 Washington's 

I bid a last farcwcl to tlic cares of oflice, and 
all the cniployincnts of public life. 

IT remains, then, to be my final and only 
request, that your excellency will communi- 
cate these sentiments to your legislature, at 
their next meeting ; and that they may be 
considered as the legacy of one who has ar- 
dently wished, on all occasions, to be useful 
to his country, and who, even in the shade 
of retirement, will not fail to implore the di- 
vine benediction upon it. 

I NOW make it my earnest prayer, that 
God would have you, and the state over 
,which you preside, in his holy protection ; 
that he would incline the hearts of the citi- 
zens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and 
obedience to government ; to entertain a 
brotherly affection and love for one another, 
for their fellow citizens of the United State's 
at large ; and particularly for their brethren 
who have served in the field ; and finally, 
that he would most graciously be pleased to 
dispose us all to do justice, to love mercy, 
and to demean ourselves wath that charity, 
humility, and pacific temper of the mind, 
which were the char a rl:eri sties of the divine 



author of our blessed religion ; without an 
humble imitation of whose example, in these 
things, we can never hope to be a happy- 

I HAVE the honour to be, with much 
esteem and respedt, sir, your excellency's 
most obedient, and most humble servant, 




Princeton, Aug. a6, 17?^. 


C^oNGRL.s.^ feci particular pleasure in 
seeing your excellency, and in congratulat- 
ing you on the success of a war in which 
you have acled so conspicuous a part. 

IT has been the singular happiness of the 
United States, that during a war so long, so 
dangerous, and so important, Providence 
has been graciously pleased to preserve the 
life of a General, who has merited and pos- 
sessed the uninterrupted confidence and af- 
feclion of his fellow-citizens. In other na- 
tions many have performed services for 
which they have deserved and received the 
thanks of the public ; but to you, sir, pecu- 
liar praise is due, your services have been es- 
sential in acquiring and establishing the free- 
dom and independence of your country ; 
they deserve the grateful acknowledgments 
of a free and independent nation : those ac- 



knowledQ:mcnts Cono;ress have the satisfiic- 

o o 

tion of expressing to your excellency. 

HOSTILITIES have now ceased, but your 
country still needs your services ; she wishes 
to avail herself of your talents in forming 
the arrangements which will be necessary 
for her in the time of peace ; for this reason 
your attendance at Congress has been re- 
quested. A committee is appointed to con- 
fer with your excellency, and to receive your 
assistance in preparing and adjusting plans 
relative to these important objecls. 



I AM too sensible of the honourable re- 
ception I have now experienced, not to be 
penetrated with the deepest feelings of grat- 

NOTWITHSTANDING Congiess apj^ar to 
estimate the value of my life beyond any 
services I have been able to render the Uni- 
ted States, yet I must be permitted to con- 
sider the wisdom and unanimity of our na- 
tional councils, the firmness of our citizens. 

40 washikciton's 

and the patience unci briivcry of our troops, 
wliich li.ive produced so h;ippy :i termination 
of the war, as the nn)st conspicuous eflbvft of 
the divine interposition, and the surest pre- 
sage of our future happiness. 

HIGHLY gratified by tlie favourable senti- 
ments which Congress are pleased to express 
of my past conducT:, and amply rewarded by 
the confidence and affedion of my fellow cit- 
izens, I cannot licsitatc to contribute my best 
endeavours towards the establishment of the 
national security in whatever manner the 
sovereign power may think proper to direct, 
until the ratification of the definitive treaty 
of peace, or the final evacuation of our coun- 
try by the British forces ; after either of 
which events, I sliall ask permission to re- 
tire to the peaceful shade of private life. 

PERHAPS, sir, no occasion may offer more 
suitable than the present to express my hum- 
ble thanks to God, and my grateful acknowl- 
edgments to my country, for the great and 
universal support I have received in every 
vicissitude of fortune, and for the many dis- 
tinguished honours which Congress have 
been pleased to confer upon me in the course 
of the war. 





Rocky-Hill, near Princeton, Nov. 2, 1783. 

1 HE United States in Congress assem- 
bled, after giving the most honourable testi- 
mony to the merits of the federal armies, and 
presenting them with the thanks of their 
country, for their long, eminent and faithful 
service, having thought proper, by their proc- 
lamation bearing date the 1 8th of October 
last, to discharge such part of the troops as 
were engaged for the war, and to permit the 
officers on furlough to retire from service, 
from and after to-morrow, which proclama- 
tion having been communicated in the pub- 
lic papers for the information and govern- 
ment of all concerned ; it only remains for 
the commander in chief to address himself 
once more, and that for the last time, to the 
armies of the United States, (however wide- 
ly dispersed individuals who compose them 
may be) and to bid them an affectionate, a 
long farewel. 

BUT before the commander in chief takes 
his final leave of those he holds most dear, 


42 Washington's 

he wishes Lu uidulgc lumsclf a few moments 
ill calhiig to mind a sliglit review of the 

just : — lie will then take the liberty of ex« 
ploring, with his military friends, their fu- 
ture prospects ; of advising the general line 
of condu(5l which in his opinion ought to be 
pursued ; and he will conclude the Address, 
by expressing the obligations he feels himself 
under for the spirited and able assistance he 
has experienced from them, in the perform- 
ance of an arduous oflice. 

A CONTEMPLATION of thc com.pletc at- 
tainment (at a period earlier than could have 
been expected) of the object for which we 
contended against so formidable a power, 
cannot but inspire us wTth astonishment and 
gratitude. The disadvantageous circum- 
stances on our part, with which the war 
was undertaken, can never be forgotten. 
The singular interposition of providence in 
our feeble condition, w^ere such as could 
scarcely escape the attention of the most un- 
Qbserving — ^while the unparalleled persever- 
ance of the armies of the United States, 
through almost every possible suffering and 
discouragement, for the space of eight long 
years, was little short of a standing miracle. 


IT is not the meaning, nor within the 
compass of this Aduress, to detail the hard' 
ships peculiarly incident to our service, or to 
describe the distresses which in several in- 
stances have resulted from the extremes of 
hunger and nakedness, combined with thc^ 
rigours of an inclement season ; nor ih it 
necessary to dv/ell on the dark side of our^ 
past affairs. Every American oiHcer and sol- 
dier must nov/ console himself for any un- 
pleasant circumstances which may have oc- 
curred, by a recollection of the uncommon 
scenes in which he has been called to ad: no 
inglorious part, and the astonishing events of 
which he has been a witness ; events wdiich 
have seldom, if ever before, taken place on 
the stage of human action, nor can they 
probably ever happen again. For who has 
before seen a disciplined army formed at 
once from such raw materials ? who that 
was not a witness could imacrine that the 


most violent local prejudices would cease so 
soon, and that miCn who came from the dif- 
ferent parts of the continent, strongly dis- 
posed by the habits of education to despise 
and quarrel with each other, would instantly 
become one patriotic band of brothets ? 
or who that was not on the spot, can trace 

^4 WASHING roN's 

the steps by which such a wonderful revolu- 
tion has been cfTcclcd, and such a glorious 
period put to all our warlike toils ? 

IT is universally acknowledged, that the 
enlarged prospects of happiness, opened by 
the confirmation of our independence and 
sovereignty, almost exceed the power of de- 
scription : and shall not the brave men who 
have contributed so essentially to these ines- 
timable acquisitions, retiring victorious from 
the field of war to the field of agriculture, 
participate in all the blessings which have 
been obtained ? In such a republic, who will 
exclude them from the rights of citizens, and 
the fruits of their labours ? in such a coun- 
try, so happily circumstanced, the pursuits 
of commerce, and the cultivation of the soil, 
will unfold to industry the certain road to 
competence. To those hardy soldiers who are 
actuated by the spirit of adventure, the fish- 
eries will afford ample and profitable employ- 
ment ; and the extensive and fertile regions 
of the west will yield a most happy asylum 
to those who, fond of domestic enjoyment, 
are seeking personal independence. Nor is it 
possible to conceive that any one of the U- 
nitcd States will prefer a national bankrupt- 



cy, and the dissolution of the union, to a 
compliance with the requisitions of Congress, 
and the payment of its just debts ; so that 
the officers and soldiers may expe(^ consider- 
able assistance, in recommencing their civil 
occupations, from the sums due to them from 
the public, which must and will most inevi- 
tably be paid. 

IN order to effect this desirable purpose, 
and to remove the prejudices which may 
have taken possession of the minds of any of 
the good people of the states, it is earnestly 
recommended to all the troops, that, with 
strong attachments to the union, they 
should carry v/ith them into civil society 
the most conciliating dispositions 5 and that 
they should prove themselves not less vir- 
tuous and useful as citizens, than they have 
been persevering and victorious as soldiers. 
What though there should be som.e envious 
individuals, who are unwilling to pay the 
debt the public has contracted, or to yield 
the tribute due to merit ; yet let such un- 
worthy treatment produce no inveclive, or 
any instance of intemperate conduct ; let it 
be remembered, that the unbiassed voice of 
the free citizens of the United States has 

46 Washington's 

protr.'sod the just reward, and given the 
merited applause ; let it be known and re- 
membered, that the reputation of the federal 
armies is established beyond the reach of ma- 
levolence i and let a consciousness of tlieir 
achievements, and fame, still excite the men 
who composed them to honourable a61:ions, 
under the persuasion, that the private virtues 
of economy, prudence, and industry, will 
riot be less amiable in civil life, than the 
more splendid qualities of valour, perseve- 
rance, and entcrprizc were in the field. Eve- 
ry one may rest assured that much of the fu- 
ture happiness of the officers and men, will 
depend upon the wise and manly condud: 
which shall be adopted by them, when they 
are mangled w^ith the great body of the com- 
nmnity. And although the general has so 
frequently given it as his opinion, in the 
most public and explicit manner, that unless 
the principles of the federal government were 
properly supported, and the powers of the 
union increased, the honour, dignity, and 
justice of the nation, would be lost forever ; 
yet he cannot help repeating on this occasion 
so interesting a sentiment, and leaving it as 
his last injunction to every officer and every 



joldier who may view the i^ubjecl in the 
same serious point of light, to add his best 
endeavours to those of his worthy fellow- 
citizens, tovv^ards effecling these great and 
valuable purposes, on which our very exist- 
ence as a nation so materially depends. 

THE commander in chief conceives little 
is now wanting to enable the soldier to 
change the military character into that of 
a citizen, but that steady and decent tenor 
of behaviour, which has generally distin- 
guished not only the army under his 
diate command, but the different detach- 
ments and separate armies, through the 
course of the war. From their good sense 
and prudence he anticipated the happiest con- 
sequences : and while he congratulates them 
on the glorious occasion which renders their 
services in the field no longer necessary, he 
wishes to express the strong obligations he 
feels himself under for the assistance he has 
received from every class, and in every in- 
stance. He presents his thanks, in the most 
serious and affectionate manner, to the gen- 
eral officers, as well for their counsel on ma- 
ny interesting occasions, as for their ardour 
in promoting the success of the plans he had 

48 wasiitkcton's 

adapted ; to tlic commandants of regiments 
antl corps, and to the ofliccrs for their zeal 
and attention in carrying his orders prompt- 
ly into execution ; to the staff, for their alac- 
rity and exactness in performing the duties 
uf their several departments ; and to the non- 
commissioned oflicers and private soldiers, 
for their extraordinary patience in suffering, 
as well as their invincible fortitude in aclion. 
To all th.e branches of the army the general 
takes this last and solemn opportunity of 
professing his inviolable attachment and 
friendship : he wishes more than bare pro- 
fessions were in his power, that he was real- 
ly able to be useful to them all in future life. 
lie flatters himself, however, they will do 
him the justice to believe, that whatever 
could with propriety be attempted by him, 
has been done. And being now to conclude 
these his last public orders, to take his ulti- 
mate leave, in a short time, of the military 
character, and to bid a fmal adieu to the ar- 
mies he has so long had the honour to com- 
mand, he can only again offer, in their be- 
half, his recommendations to their grateful 
country, and his prayers to the God of ar- 
mies. May ample justice be done them here, 
and may the choicest of heaven's favours, 



both here and hereafter, attend those, who, 
under the divine auspices, have secured innu- 
merable blessings for others I With these 
wishes, and this benediction, the commander 
In chief is about to retire from service. The 
curtain of separation will soon be drawn — 
and the military scene, to him, will be closed 


'^ WASHING ion's 

ANNAPOLIS, DEC. ij, I 78.5. 

otstHAi. fr AS fl/XGTOX Uiv'inp^ informed Congress of his 
intention to rciitm the commission he had the honor to hold in 
ihcir service, tbev resolved that it thould he c'onc in a public au- 
«*Ii-ncc ; and appointed this d;iy for the interesting scene. At a 
r? per moment, Ocn. W ashing ion appcircd, and addressed The 
i'icsidcni in the lollowing words : — 


J\Jj<. /'AJ:,:>Jlf£NT, 

" THE great events on which my resig- 
nation depended, liaving at length taken 
place, I liave now the honour of offering my 
sincere congratulations to Congress, and of 
presenting myself before them to surrender 
into tlieir hands, the trust committed to me, 
and to claim the indulgence of retiring from 
the service of my country. 

*' HAPPY in the confirmation of our in- 
dependence and sovereignty, and pleased 
with the opportunity afforded the United 
States of becoming a respectable nation, I re* 
sign with satisfaction the appointment I ac- 
cepted with diffidence 5 a diffidence in my 
% abilities to accomplish so arduous a task, 
which, however, was superseded by a conli- 
dence in the rectitude of our cause, the sup- 
port of the supreme power of the union, and 
the patronage of heaven. 



" THE successful termination of the war 
has verified the most sanguine expectations, 
and my gratitude for the interposition of 

providence, and the assistance I have received 
from my countrymen, increases with every 
review of the momentous contest. 

" WHILE I repeat my obligations to the 
army in general, I should do injustice to my 
own feelings not to acknowledge, in this 
place, the peculiar services, and distinguished 
merits of the persons w^ho have been attach- 
ed to my person during the war : it was im- 
possible the choice of confidential ofiicers to 
compose my family should have been more 
fortunate : permit me, sir, to recommend in 
particular those who have continued in the 
service to the present moment, as worthy of 
the favorable notice and patronage of Con- 

" I consider it as an indispensable duty to 
close this last solemn a6l of my official life, by 
commending the interests of our dearest coun- 
try to the protection of Almighty God, and 
those who have the superintendence of them, 
to his holy keeping. 


" HAVING now finished the work assign- 
ed nic, I retire from the great theatre of ac- 
tion ; and bidding an affeclionate farcwel to 
this august body, under whose orders I have 
long dcicd, I here offer my conmiission, and 
take my leave of all the employments of pub- 
lic life." 



" THE United States in Congress assem- 
bled, receive wdth emotions too affecting for 
utterance, the solemn resignation of the au- 
thorities under which you have led their 
troops with success, through a perilous and 
doubtful w^ar. 

" CALLED upon by your country to de- 
fend its invaded rights, you accepted the sa- 
cred charge before it had formed alliances, 
and whilst it was without friends or a gov- 
ernment to support you. 

" YOU have conduced the great military 
contest with wisdom and fortitude, invaria- 
bly regarding the rights of the civil power 
through all disasters and changes : you have 


by the love and confidence of your fellow 
citizens enabled them to display their ir^ar- 
tial genius, and transmit their fame to pos- 
terity ; you have persevered, till these Uni- 
ted States, aided by a magnanimous king and 
nation, have been enabled, under a just pro- 
vidence, to close the war in freedom, safety 
and independence ; on which happy event 
we sincerely join you in congratulations. 

" HAVING defended the standard of lib- 
erty in this new world — having taught a les- 
son useful to those who inflict, and to those 
who feel oppression, you retire from the great 
theatre of action, with the bkssing of your 
fellov/ citizens, but the glory of your virtues 
will not terminate with your military com- 
mand, it will continue to animate remotest 
ages. We feel with you, our obligations to 
the army in general, and will particularly 
charge ourselves with the interest of those 
confidential officers, who have attended vour 
person to this affecting moment. 

" v:e join you in commending the inter- 
ests of our dearest country to the protection 
of Almighty God, beseeching Him to dispose 
the hearts and mindii of its citizens, to im- 
prove the opportunity afforded them, of bo- 



coming a happy and respectable nation ; and 
for you, wc address to Him our earnest pray- 
ers, that a hfe so beloved may be fostered 
with all his care : that your days may be 
happy as they have been illustrious, and that 
he will fmally give you that reward which 
this world cannot give." 



[nEW-YORK, APRIL 30, 1789. 

THIS day the great and illustrious IVASHINGTONy the fa- 
vorite son of liberty, and dehverer of his country, entered upon 
the execution of the office of First Magistrate of the United State* 
of America ; to which important station he had been unanimous- 
ly called by the united voice of the people. The ceremony wuith 
took place on this occasion was truly grand and pleasing, and ev- 
ery heart fcemed anxious to teflify the joy it felt on fo memorable 
an event. His Excellency was escorted from his house by a troop 
of light dragoons, and a legion under the command of col. Lt-wisy 
attended by a committee of the senate and house of reprcsenta/- 
tlves, to Federal Hall, where he was formally received by botk 
houses of Congress, assembled in the Senate Chamber ; after which 
he was condu«5led to the gallery in front of the hall, accompanied 
by all the members, when the oath, prescribed by the Constitu- 
tion, was administered to hiax by the Chancellor of the State, who 

then laid, 




which was answered by an immense concourse of citizens, assem- 
bled on the occasion, by the loudest plaudit and acclamation, that 
love and veneration ever inspired. Ke then made the following 
Speech :] 



x\MONG the vicissitudes incident to 
life, no event could have filled me with great- 
er anxieties than that of which the notifica- 
tion was transmitted by your order, and re- 

£$ Washington's 

cciveJ on the 14th day of the prcsciit month. 
On I he one h;iiul, 1 was summoned by my 
country, whose voice I can never hear but 
with veneration and love, from a retreat 
which I had chosen with the fondest predi- 
leclion, and, in my flattering hopes, w^ith an 
immutable decision, as the asylum of my de- 
cHning years : a retreat wliich was rendered 
every day more necessary as well as more 
dear to me, bv the addition of habit to incli- 
nation, and of frequent interruptions in my 
health to the gradual waste committed on it 
by time. On the other hand,the magnitude 
and diiliculty of the trust to w^hich the voice 
of my country called me, being sufEcient to 
awaken in the wisest and most experienced 
of her citizens, a distrustful scrutiny into his 
qualifications, could not but overwhelm witK 
despondence one, who, inheriting inferiour 
endowments from nature, and unpractised 
in the duties of civil administration, ought 
to be peculiarly conscious of his own deficien- 
cies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare 
aver is, that it has been my faithful study to 
colled my duty from a just appreciation of 
every circumstance by which it might be af- 
fected. All I dare hope is, that if in execut- 
ing this task I have been too much swayed by 


2. grateful remembrance of former instances, 
or by an affeclionate sensibility to this tran- 
scendent proof of the confidence of my fel- 
low-citizens ; and have thence too little con- 
sulted my incapacity as well as disinclination 
for the weighty and untried cares before me; 
my error will be palliated by the motives 
Vv'hich misled me, and its consequences be 
judged by my country, v/ith some share of 
the partiality in v/hich they originated. 

SUCH being the impressions under which 
I have, in obedience to the public summons, 
repaired to the present station, it would be 
peculiarly im.proper to omit in this iirst offi- 
cial act, my fervent supplications to that Al- 
mighty Being, who rules over the universe, 
who presides in the councils of nations, and 
whose providential aids can supply every hu- 
man defect, that his benediction may conse- 
crate to the liberties and happiness of the peo- 
ple of the United States, a government insti- 
tuted by themselves for these essential pur- 
poses, and may enable every instrument em- 
ployed in its administration, to execute with 
success, the functions allotted to his charge. 
In tendering this homage to the great author 
of every public and private good, I assure 


^S washinotom's 

myself that it expresses your sentiments not 
less than my own ; nor those of my fellow- 
citizens at large, less than cither. No peo- 
ple can be bound to acknowledge and adore 
the invisible hand, which condufts the af- 
fairs of men, more than the people of the 
United States. Every step, by which they 
have advanced to the character of an inde- 
pendent nation, seems to have been distin- 
guished by some token of providential agen- 
cy. And in the important revolution just 
accomplished in the system of their united 
government, the tranquil deliberations and 
voluntary consent of so many distinct com- 
munities, from which the event has resulted, 
cannot be compared v/ith the means by 
which most governments have been establish- 
ed, without some return of pious gratitude 
along with an humble anticipation of the fu- 
ture blessings w^hich the past seem to pre- 
sage. These reflections, arising out of the 
present crisis, have forced themselves too 
strongly on my mind to be suppressed. You 
will join with me, I trust, in thinking that 
there are none under the influence of which, 
the proceedings of a new and free govern- 
ment can more auspiciously commence. 


BY the article estabiishing the executive 
department, it is made the duty of the presi- 
dent " to recommend to your consideration, 
such measures as he shall judge necessary 
and expedient." The circumstances under 
which I now meet you, will acquit me from 
entering into that subjecl farther than to re- 
fer you to the great constitutional charter 
under which we are assembled ; and which, 
in defining your powers, designates the ob- 
jects to which your attention is to be given. 
It will be more consistent with those circum- 
stances, and far more congenial with the feel- 
ings which actuate me, to substitute in place 
of a recommendation of particular measures, 
the tribute that is due to the talents, the rec- 
titude, and the patriotism which adorn the 
characters selected to devise and adopt them. 
In these honourable qualifications, I behold 
the surest pledges, that as on one side, no lo- 
cal prejudices or attachments, no separate 
views nor party animosities, will misdirect 
the comprehensive and equal eye which ought 
to watch over this great assemblage of com- 
munities and interests : so,on the other, that 
the foundations of our national policy will 
be laid in the pure and immutable principles 


of private morality ; and the pre-eminence of 
a free government be exemplified by all the 
attributes wliich can win the afreci:ions of its 
citizens, and command tlic respecl of the 

I DWELL on this prospect with every sat- 
isfaction which an ardent love for my coun- 
try can inspire ; since there is no truth more 
thoroughly established, than that there ex- 
ists in the economy and course of nature, an 
indissoluble union between virtue and happi- 
ness — ^between duty and advantage, between 
the genuine maxims of an honest and mag- 
nanimous policy, and the solid rewards of 
public prosperity and felicity. Since we 
ought to be no less persuaded that the pro- 
pitious smiles of heaven can never be expect- 
ed on a nation that disregards the eternal 
rules of order and right, which heaven itself 
has ordained ; and since the preservation of 
the sacred fire of liberty, and the destiny of 
the republican model of government, are 
justly considered as deeply, perhaps as final- 
ly staked, on the experiment entrusted to 
the hands of the American people. 


BESIDES the ordinary objects submitted to 
your care, it will remain with your judg* 
ment to decide how far an exercise of the oc- 
casional power delegated by the fifth article 
of the constitution is rendered expedient at 
the present juncture by the nature of objec- 
tions which have been urged against the sys- 
tem, or by the degree of inquietude which 
has given birth to them. Instead of under- 
taking particular recommendations on this 
subject, in which I could be guided by no 
lights derived from official opportunities, I 
shall again give way to my intire confidence 
in your discernment and pursuit of the pub- 
lic good : for I assure myself, that whilst 
you carefully avoid every alteration which 
might endanger the benefits of an united 
and effective government, or which ought to 
await the future lessons of experience ; a rev- 
erence for the characteristic rights of free- 
men, and a regard for the public harmony, 
will sufficiently influence your deliberations 
on the question, how far the former can be 
more impregnably fortified, or the latter be 
safely and advantageously promoted. 

TO the preceding observations I have one 
to add, which will bv- most properly ad^ 

62 wastiinoton's 

dressed to the house of representatives. It 
concerns myself, and will therefore be as brief 
as possible. When I was first honoured with 
a call into the service of my country, then 
on the eve of an arduous struggle for its lib- 
erties, the light in which I contemplated my 
duty, required that I should renounce every 
pecuniary compensation. From this resolu- 
tion 1 have in no instance departed. And be- 
ing still under the impressions which pro- 
duced it, I must decline, as inapplicable to 
myself, any share in the personal emoluments, 
which may be indispensably included in a 
permanent provision for the executive de- 
partment ; and must accordingly pray that 
the pecuniary estimates for the station in 
which I am placed, may, during my contin- 
uation in it, be Hmited to such actual expen- 
ditures as the public good may be thought 
to require. 

HAVING thus imparted to you my senti- 
ments, as they have been awakened by the 
occasion which brings us together, I shall 
take my present leave ; but not without re- 
sorting once more to the benign parent of 
the human race, in humble supplication, that 
since he has been pleased to favour the Amcr- 


lean people with opportunities for deliberat- 
ing in perfect tranquility, and dispositions 
for deciding with unparalleled unanimity on 
a form of government for the security of 
their union, and the advancement of their 
happiness ; so his divine blessing may be 
equally co7isficuous in the enlarged views, the 
temperate consultations, and the wise meas- 
ures on which the success of this government 
must depend. 


^4 WA5HIN(:T0N*S 




1 \l\\ pcrlocl for a new election of a Cit- 
izen, to administer the executive cfovern- 
mcnt of the United States, being not far dis- 
tant, and the time actually arrived, when 
your thoughts must be employed in desig- 
nating the person, who is to be cloathed 
with that important trust, it appears to me 
proper, especially as it may conduce to a 
more distinct expression of the public voice, 
that I should now apprise you of the resolu- 
tion I have formed, to decUne being consi- 
dered among the number of those, out of 
whom a choice is to be made. 

I BEG you, at the same time, to do mc 
the justice to be assured, that this resolution 
has not been taken, without a strict regard 
to all the considerations appertaining to the 
relation, which binds a dutiful citizen to his 
country ; and that, in withdrawing the ten- 


der of service which silence in mv situation 
might imply, I am influenced by no diminu- 
tion oF zeal for your future interest ; no de- 
ficiency of grateful respecl: for your past kind- 
ness : but am supported by a full conviction 
that the step is compatible with both. 

THE acceptance of, and continuance hith- 
erto in the oihce to which your suffrages 
have twice called me, have been a uniform 
sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of du- 
ty, and to a deference for what appeared to 
be your desire. I constantly hoped, that it 
would have been much earlier in my power 
consistently with motives, which I was not 
at liberty to disregard, to return to that re- 
tirement, from which I had been reiu<5lantly 
drawn. The strength of my inclination to do 
this, previous to the last election, had even 
ied to the preparation of an address to de- 
clare it to you ; but mature reflection on the 
then perplexed and critical posture of affairs 
with foreign nations, and the unanimous ad- 
vice of persons intitled to my confidence, im- 
pelled me to abandon the idea. 

I REJOICE, that the state of your con- 
cerns, external as well as internal, no longer 

66 Washington's 

renders tlic pursuit oF inclination incompa- 
tible with the sentiment of duty, or proprie- 
ty : and am persuaded, whatever partiality 
may be retained for my service, that in the 
present circumstances of our country, you 
will not disapprove my determination to 

THE impressions with which I first un- 
dertook the arduous trust, were explained 
on the proper occasion. In the discharge of 
this trust, I will only say, that I have with 
good intentions, contributed towards the or- 
ganization and administration of the govern- 
ment, the best exertions of which a very fal- 
lible judgment was capable. Not uncon- 
scious, in the outset, of the inferiority of my 
qualifications, experience in my own eyes, 
perliaps still more in the eyes of others, has 
strengthened the motives to diffidence of 
myself : and every day the increasing weight 
of years admonishes me more and more, that 
the shade of retirement is as necessary to me 
as it will be welcome. Satisfied that if any 
circumstances have given peculiar value to 
my services, they were temporary, I have 
ihe consolation to believe, that while choice 


and prudence invite me to quit the political 
scene, patriotism does not forbid it. 

IN looking forward to the moment, which 
is intended to terminate the career of my 
public Hfe, my feehngs do not permit me to 
suspend the deep acknowledgment of that 
debt of gratitude which I owe to my belov- 
ed country, for the many honours it has 
conferred upon me ; still more for the sted- 
last confidence with which it has supported 
m€ ; and for the opportunities I have thence 
enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attach- 
ment, by services faithful and persevering, 
though in usefulness unequal to my zeal. — 
If benefits have resulted to our country from 
these services, let it always be remembered 
to our praise, and as an instruclive example 
in our annals, that under circumstances in 
which the passions, agitated in every direc- 
tion, were liable to mislead, amidst appear- 
ances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of for- 
tune, often discouraging in situations, in 
which not unfrequently want of success has 
countenanced the spirit of criticism — the 
constancy of your support was the essential 
prop of the efforts, and a guarantee of the 
plans by which they were effeded. Pro- 

6B Washington's 

foundly penetrated \vith this idea, I shall car* 
ry it with me to my grave, as a strong in- 
citement to unceasing vows, that heaven 
may continue to you the choicest tokens of 
itsbeneficencc — that your union and brother- 
ly affecdon may be perpetual — that the free 
constitution, which is the work of your 
hands, may be sacredly maintained — that its 
administration in every department may be 
stamped with wisdom and virtue — that, in 
fine, the happiness of the people of these 
states, under the auspices of liberty, maybe 
made complete, by so careful a preservation 
and so prudent a use of this blessing, as will 
acquire to them the glory of recommending 
it to the applause, the affection, and adoption 
of every nation which is yet a stranger to it. 

HERE, perhaps, I ought to stop. But so- 
licitude for your welfare, which cannot end 
but with my life, and the apprehension of 
danger natural to that solicitude, urge me 
on an occasion like the present, to offer to 
your solemn contemplation, and to recom- 
mend to your frequent review, some senti- 
ments, which are the result of much reflec- 
tion, of no inconsiderable observation, and 
v/hich appear to me aU-important to the per- 


manency of your felicity as a people. These 
will be offered to you with the more free- 
dom, as you can only feel in them the disin- 
terested warnings of a parting friend, who 
can possibly have no personal motive to bias 
his counsel. Nor can I forget, as an encour- 
agement to it, your indulgent reception of 
my sentiments on a former and not dissim- 
ilar occasion. 

INTERWOVEN as IS the love of liberty wdth 
every ligament of your hearts, no recom- 
mendation of mine is necessary to fortify or 
confirm the attachment. 

THE unity of government which consti- 
tutes you one people, is also now dear to you. 
It is justly so ; for it is a main pillar in the 
edifice of your real independence, the sup- 
port of your tranquility at home, your peace 
abroad ; of your safety ; of your prosperity 5 
of that very liberty which you so highly 
prize. But, as it is easy to foresee, that 
from different causes and from different 
quarters, much pains will be taken, many 
artifices employed, to weaken in your minds 
the convidion of this truth ; as this is the 
point in your political fortress, against which 

TO washiK(;ton's 

the batteries of internal and external ene« 
mies will be most constantly and adively, 
(though often covertly and insidiously) di- 
re6lcd, it is of infinite moment that you 
jfhould properly estimate the immense value 
of your national nnion^^ to your colleclite 
and indlviilual happines;sj that you should 
cherish a cordial, habij:ual, and immoyabie 
attachment tojt ; accust_oming_yourselves to 
t'liinlc and speak of it as of the palladiuni of 
your political safety and prosperity, watch- 
ing for its preservation with jealous anxiety ; 
cliscountenancing whatever may suggest even 
a suspicion that it can in any event be ab^in- 
doncd ; and indignantly frowningjapon^the 
first dawning of every attempt to alienate 
any portion of our country from the re^, 
or to enfceolc the sacred ties which now link 
together the various parts? ~ 

FOR this you have every inducement of 
sympathy and interest. Citizens, by birth or 
choice, of a common country, that country 
has a right to concentrate your affedions. 
The name of American, which belongs to 
you in your national capacity, must always 
exalt the just pride of patriotism, more than 
any appellation derived from local discrimi- 



nations. With slight shades of diiTercnce, 
you have the same religion, manners, habits 
and political principles. You have in a com- 
mon cause, fought and triumphed togetlicr j 
the independence and liberty you possess arc 
the work of joint councils, and joint effortN, 
of common dangers, sunerings and suc- 

BUT these considerations however pow- 
erfully they address themselves to your sen- 
sibility, are greatly outweighed by these 
which apply more immediately to your in- 
terest. Here every portion of our country 
finds the niost commanding: motives for care- 
fully guarding and preserving the union of 
the whole. 

THE Norfbj in an unrestrained intercourse' 
with the South, protected by the equal law^ 
of a common government, finds in the pro- 
ductions of the latter, great additional re- 
sources of maritime and commercial enter- 
prise, and precious materials of manufactur- 
ing industry. The South in the same intez*- 
course, benefiting by the agency of the Ncrth^ 
sees its agriculture grow, and its commerce 
expand. Turning partly into its own chan- 



uels the seamen ul the Norths it finds its par- 
ticular navij^ition invigorated — and, while 
it contributes, in different ways, to nourish 
and increase the general mass of the nation- 
al navigation, it looks forward to the protec- 
tion of a maritime strength, to which itself 
is unequally adapted. The East in a like in- 
tercourse with the West, already finds, and in 
the progressive improvement of interior com- 
munications, by land and water, will more 
and more find a valuable vent for the com- 
modities which it brings from abroad, or ma- 
nufaclures at home. The West derives from 
the East supplies requisite to its growth and 
comfort ; and what is perhaps of still great- 
er consequence, it must of necessity owe the 
secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for 
its own productions to the weight, influence, 
and the future. maritime strength of the at- 
lantic side of the Union, directed by an in- 
dissoluble community of interests as one nation. 
Any other tenure by vv^hich the West can hold 
this essential advantage, whether derived 
from its own separate strength, or from an 
apostate and unnatural connexion with any 
foreign power, must be intrinsically preca- 


WHILE then every part of our country 
thus feels an immediate and particular inter- 
est in union, all the parts combined cannot 
fail to find in the united mass of means and 
efforts, greater strength, greater resource, 
proportionably greater security, from exter- 
nal danger, a less frequent interruption of 
their peace by foreign nations ; and what is 

of inestimable value, they must derive from 
union an exemption from those broils and 

wars between themselves, which so frequent- 
ly afflict neighbouring countries, not tied to- 
gether by the same government j which their 
own rivalships alone would be sufficient to 
produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, 
attachments and intrigues, would stimulate 
and imbitter. Hence, likewise, they will 
avoid the necessity of those overgrown mil- 
itary establishments, which, under any form 
of government, are inauspicious to liberty, 
and which are to be regarded as particularly 
hostile to republican liberty : in this sense 
it is, that your union ought to be considered 
as a main prop of your liberty, and that the 
love of the one ought to endear to you the 
preservation of the other. 

74 Washington's 

runs E considerations speak a persuasive 
language to every rellecling and virtuous 
mind, and exhibit the continuance of the 
UNION as a primary object of a patriotic de- 
sire. Is there a doubt, whether a common 
government c;m embrace so large a sphere ? 
— let experience solve it. To listen to mere 
speculation, in such a case, were criminal. 
We are authorized to hope that a proper or- 
ganization of the v/hole, with the auxiliary 
agency of governments for the respective 
sub-divisions, will afford a happy issue to the 
experiment. It is well worth a fair and full 
experiment. With such powerful and ob- 
vious motives to union, affecting all parts of 
our country, while experiment shall not have 
demonstrated its impracticability, there will 
always be reason to distrust the patriotism of 
those, who, in any quarter, may endeavour to 
weaken its hands. 

IN contemplating the causes which may 
disturb our union, it occurs as matter of se- 
rious concern, that any ground should be 
furnished for characterising parties, by geo^ 
^r^/>/j/r<3:/ discriminations — Northern and South- 
ern — Atlantic and Western ; whence design- 
ing men may endeavour to excite a belief, 


that there is a real difference of local inter- 
ests and views. One of the expedients of 
party, to acquire influence within particular 
districts, is to misrepresent the opinions and 
aims of other districts. You cannot shield 
yourselves too much against the jealousies 
and heart-burnings which spring from these 
misrepresentations : they tend to render 
alien to each other, those who ought to be 
bound together by fraternal affection. — The 
inhabitants of our western country have 
lately had a useful lesson on this head : they 
have seen, in the negotiation by the execu- 
tive, and in the unanimous ratification by 
the senate, of the treaty with Spain, and in 
the universal satisfaction at that event, 
throughout the United States, a decisive 
proof how unfounded were the suspicions 
propogated among them, of a policy in the 
general government, and in theatlantic states, 
unfriendly to their interests, in regard to the 
Missisippi ; they have been witnesses to the 
formation of two treaties, that with Great- 
Britain, and that Vvdth Spain, which secure to 
them every thing they could desire, in respecl 
to our foreign relations, towards confirming 
their prosperity. Will it not be their wis- 
dom to rely for the preservation of these ad- 

^6 wasitixcton's 

vantjnres on the union by which they were 
procured ? Will ihey not henceforth be deaf 
to those advisers,if such they are, who would 
sever them from their brethren, and conne6l 
them with aliens ? 

TO the eflicacy and permanency of your 
union, a government for the whole is indis- 
pensable. No alliances, however stri6l, be- 
tween the parts, can be an adequate substi- 
tute ; they will inevitably experience the in- 
fradlions and interruptions which all allian- 
ces, in all times, have experienced. Sensible 
of this momentous truth, you have improved 
upon your first essay, by the adoption of a 
constitution of government better calculated 
than your former for an intimate union, and 
for the efficacious management of your com- 
mon concerns. This government, the off- 
spring of your own choice, uninfluenced and 
unawed, adopted upon full investigation, and 
mature deliberation, completely free ip its 
principles, in the distribution of its powers, 
uniting security with energy, and contain- 
ing, within itself, a provision for its own a- 
mendment, has a just claim to your confi- 
dence, and your support. Resped for its au- 
thority, compliance with its laws, acquies- 


cence in its measures, arc duties enjoined by 
the fundamental maxims of true liberty. — 
Tlie basis of our political systems isthe right 
of the people to make and to alter their con- 
stitutions of government. But, the consti- 
tution which at any time exists, 'till changed 
by an explicit and authentic acl of the whole 
people, is sacred and obligatory upon all. The 
very idea of the power and the right of the 
people to establish government, pre-suppose 
the duty of every individual to obey the e^?- 
tablished government. 

ALL obstructions to the execution of the 
laws, all combinations and associations, un- 
der whatever plausible character, with the 
real charafter to direcl, controul, counteract, 
or awe the regular deliberation and action of 
the constituted authorities, are destructive of 
this fundamental principle, and of fatal ten- 
dency. They serve to organize faction, to 
give it an artificial and extraordinary force. 
to put in the place of the delegated will oi 
the nation, the will of a party, often a small, 
but artful and enterprising minority of the 
community ; and, according to the alternate 
triumphs of different parties, to make the 
public administration the mirror of the ill- 


concerted and incongruous projects of fa<5lion, 
rallicr than the organ of consistent and 
wholesome plans, digested by common coun- 
cils, and modified by mutual interests. 

HOWEVER combinations or associations of 
the above description may now and then 
ansvv'cr popular ends, they are likely in the 
course of time and things, to become potent 
engines, by which cunning, ambitious, and 
unprincipled men, will be enabled to subvert 
the power of the people, and to usurp for 
themselves the reins of government ; destroy- 
ing afterwards the very engines which have 
lifted them to unjust dominion. 

TOWARDS the preservation of your gov- 
crnm.ent, and the permanency of your pres- 
cnt happy state, it is requisite, not only that 
you steadily discountenance irregular oppo- 
sition to its acknowledged authority, but al- 
so that you resist with care, the spirit of in- 
novation upon its principles, however spec- 
ious the pretexts. One method of assault 
may be to effect, in the forms of the constitu- 
tion, alterations Avhich will impair the ener- 
gy of the system, and thus to undermine 
what cannot be direclly overthrown. In all 


the changes to which you may be invited, 
remember that time and habit are at least ac 
necessary to fix the true character of govern- 
ment, as of other human institutions — that 
experience is the surest standard, by which 
to test the real tendency of the existing con- 
stitution of a country — that facility in chan- 
ges upon the credit of mere hypothesis and 
opinion, exposes to perpetual change, from 
the endless variety of hypothesis and opin- 
ion ; and remember, especially, that for the 
efficient management of your common inte- 
rest, in a country so extensive as ours, a gov- 
ernment of as much vigor as is consistent 
with the perfect security of liberty, is indis- 
pensable. Liberty itself will find in such a 
government, with powers properly distribut- 
ed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is, 
indeed, little else than a name, where the 
government is too feeble to withstand the 
enterprises of faction, to confine each mem- 
ber of the society within the limits prescribed 
by the laws, and to m.aintain all in the se- 
cure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of 
person and property. 

I HAVE already intimated to you, the dan- 
ger of parties in the state, with particular re- 

So WASHING ion's 

fcrcncc to tlie founding of them on geograph- 
ical discrimination. Let me now take a 
more comprehensive view, and warn you, in 
the most solemn manner, against the bane- 
tul cfTecIs of the spirit of party, generally. 

THIS spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable 
from our nature, having its root in the 
strongest passions of the human mind. It 
exists under different shapes in all govern- 
ments — more or less stifled, controuled, or 
repressed ; but in those of the popular form,, 
it is seen in its greatest rankness, and is tru- 
ly their worst enemy. 

THE alternate domination of one faction 
over another, sharpened by the spirit of re- 
venge, natural to party dissension, which in 
different ages and countries has perpetrated 
the most horrid enormities, is itself a fright- 
ful despotism ; but this leads at length to a 
more formal and permanent despotism. — 
The disorders and miseries which result,grad- 
ually incline the minds of men to seek secu- 
rity and repose in the absolute power of an 
individual ; and sooner or later the chief of 
some prevailing faction, more able or more 
fortunate than his competitors, turns this 


disposition to the purposes of his own eleva- 
tion, on the ruins of public liberty. 

WITHOUT looking forward to an extrem- 
ity of this kind (which nevertheless ought 
not to be intirely out of sight) the common 
and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party, 
are sufficient to make it the interest and du- 
ty of a wise people to discourage and re- 
strain it. 

IT serves ahvays to distracl the public 
councils, and enfeeble the public administra- 
tion. It agitates the community with ill- 
founded jealousies, and false alarms ; kindles 
the animosity of one part against another, 
foments occasionally riot and insurrection* 
It opens the door to foreign influence and 
corruption, which find a facilitated access to 
the government itself through the channels 
of party passions. Thus the policy and will 
of one country are subjected to the policy 
and will of another. 

THERE is an opinion, that parties in free 
countries are useful checks upon the admini- 
stration of the government, and serve to keep 
alive the spirit of liberty. This, within cer- 
tain limits, is probably true, and in govern- 

82 WASHiNc; roN^s 

mcnts of a monarchial cast, patriotism may 
look with indulgence, if not with favour up- 
on tlic spirit of party. But in those of the 
popular character, in governments purely 
ficcf ivc, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. 
From their natural tcndencv it is certain 


there will always be enough of that spirit for 
every salutary purpose. And there being 
constant danger of excess, the eftbrt ought 
to be by force of public opinion, to mitigate 
and assuage it. A fire not to be quenched ; 
it demands uniform vigilance to prevent its 
bursting into a flame, lest, instead of warm- 
ing, it should consume. 

IT is important likewise, that the habits 
of thinking in a free country, should inspire 
caution in those entrusted with its admini- 
stratnon, to confine themselves within their 
respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in , 
the exercise of the powers of one department 
to encroach upon another. The spirit of 
encroachment tends to consolidate the pow- 
ers of all the departm.ents in one, and thus 
to create, whatever the form of government, 
a real despotism. A just estimate of that 
love of power, and proneness to abuse it, 
w^hich predominates in the human heart, is 


•sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of thisu 
position. The necessity of reciprocal check> 
in the exercise of the political power, by di- 
viding and distributing it into different de- 
positories, and constituting each the guard- 
ian of the public weal against invasions by 
the others, has been evinced by experiments 
ancient and modern ; some of them in our 
country, and under our own eyes. To pre- 
serve them must be as necessary as to insti- 
tute them. If, in the opinion of the people, 
the distribution or modification of the con- 
stitutional powers be, in any particular, 
wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment 
in the way, v/hich the constitution designates 
— ^but let there be no change by usurpation ; 
for though tMs, in one instance, may be the 
instrument of good, it is the customary weap- 
on by which free governments are destroy- 
ed. — The precedent must always greatly 
overbalance, in permanent evil, any partial 
or transient benefit w^hich the use can at any 
time yield. 

OF all the dispositions and habits which 
lead to political prosperity, religion and mo- 
rality are indispensable supports. In vain 
would that man claim the tribute of patriot-* 

84 Washington's 

ism, \vli(i would liibour to subvert these 
great pillars ot Jiuinan happiness, these firm- 
est props of tlic duties of men and citizens. 
The mere poHtician, equally with the pious 
man, ouglit to rcspecl and to cherish them. 
— A volume could not trace all their con- 
neclions v^-ith private and public felicity. 
Let it simply be asked where is the security 
for property, for reputation, for life, if the 
sense of religious obligation desert the oaths 
which are the instruments of investigation 
in courts of justice ? — And let us with cau- 
tion indulge the supposition, that morality 
can be maintained without religion. What- 
ever may be conceded of the influence of re- 
fined education on minds of peculiar struc- 
ture ; reason and experience both forbid us 
to expe<5b that national morality can prevail 
in exclusion of religious principle. 

IT is substantially true, that virtue or 
morality is a necessary spring of popular gov- 
ernment. The rule indeed extends with 
more or less force to every species of free 
government. Who that is a sincere friend 
to it can look with indifference upon at- 
tempts to shake the foundation of the fabric ? 


PROMOTE then as an object of primary 
importance, institutions for the general dif- 
fusion of knowledge. In proportion as the 
-struclure of a government gives force to pub- 
lic opinion, it is essential that public opinion 
should be enlightened. 

AS a very important source of strength 
and security, cherish public credit. One 
method of preserving it, is to use it as spar- 
ingly as possible ; avoiding occasions of ex- 
pence, by cultivating peace, but remember- 
ing also, that timely disbursements, to pre- 
pare for dangers, frequently prevent much 
greater disbursements to repel it : avoiding 
likewise the accumulation of debt, not only 
by shunning occasions of expence, but by 
vigorous exertions in time of peace to dis- 
charge the debts, which unavoidable wars 
may have occasioned, not ungenerously 
throwing upon posterity the burthen which 
we ourselves ought to bear. The execution 
of these maxims belongs to your representa- 
tives ; but it is necessary that public opinion 
should co-operate. To facilitate to them the 
performance of their duty, it is essential that 
you should practically bear in mind that to- 
wards the payment of debts there must be 

86 Washington's 

revenue ; that to have revenue there must be 
taxes ; and none can be devised which arc 
not more or less inconvenient and unpleas- 
ant ; that the intrinsic embarrassment insep- 
arable from the selection of the proper ob- 
jc(fts (wliich is always a choice of difficulties) 
ousrht to be a decisive motive for a candid 


constru6lion of the conducl of the govern- 
ment in making it, and for a spirit of acqui- 
escence in the measures for obtaining reve- 
nue which the public exigencies may at any 
time didate, 

OBSERVE good faith and justice towards 
all nations ; cultivate peace and harmony 
with all — religion and morality enjoin thi$ 
conducl ; and can it be, that good policy 
does not equally enjoin it ? It will be worthy 
of a free, enlightened, and (at no distant pe- 
riod) a great nation, to give to mankind the 
magnanimous and novel example of a people 
always guided by an exalted justice and be- 
nevolence. Who can doubt that in the course 
of time and things, the fruits of such a plan 
would richly repay any temporary advanta- 
ges which might be lost by a steady adher- 
ence to it ? Can it be, that providence has 
not connected the permanent felicity of a na- 


fion with virtue ? The experiment, at least, 
is recommended by every sentiment which 
ennobles human nature. Alas ! is it render- 
ed impossible by its vices ? 

IN the execution of such a plan, nothing 
is more essential than that permanent, invet- 
erate antipathies against particular nations, 
and passionate attachments for others, should 
be excluded ; and that in the place of them, 
just and amicable feelings towards all should 
be cultivated. The nation Vv'hich indulges 
towards another an habitual hatred, or an 
habitual fondness, is in somic degree a slave. 
It is a slave to its animosity, or to its affec- 
tion, either of which is sufficient to lead it 
astray from its duty and its interest. Anti- 
pathy in one nation against another, disposes 
each more readily to offer insult and injury, 
to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and 
to be haughty and intractable when accident- 
al or trifling occasions of dispute occur. 

HENCE frequent collisions, obstinate, en- 
venomed and bloody contests. The nation, 
prompted by ill will and resentment, some- 
times impels to war the government, contra- 
ry to the best calculations of policy. Th? 

S8 WAS! II NO ton's 

government sometimes participates in the na- 
tional propensity, and adopts, through pas- 
sion, what reason would rcjccT: ; at other 
times, it makes the animosity of the nation 
subservient to projects of hostihty, instigated 
by pride, ambition, and other sinister and 
pernicious motives. 1 he peace, often, some- 
times, perhaps, the hberty, of nations has 
been the victim. 

j^o, likewise, a passionate attachment of 
one nation for another, produces a variety 
of evils. Sympathy for the favourite nation, 
facilitating the illusion of an imaginary com- 
mon interest, in cases where no real com- 
mon interest exists, and infusing into one the 
enmities of the other, betrays the former in- 
to a participation in the quarrels and wars 
of the latter, without adequate inducement 
or justification. It leads also to concessions 
to the favourite nation, of privileges denied 
to others, Avhich is apt, doubly, to injure the 
nation making the concessions ; by unneces- 
sarily parting with what ought to have been 
retained ; and by exciting jealousy, ill will, 
and a disposition to retaliate, in the parties 
from w^hom equal privileges are withheld : 
and it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or de- 



luded citizens (who devote themselves to the 
favourite natiori) facility to betray, or sacri- 
fice the interests of their own country, with- 
out odium, sometimxcs even with popularity; 
gilding with the appearances of a virtuous 
sense of obligation a commendable deference 
for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for 
public good, the base or foolish compliances 
of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. 

AS avenues to foreign influence in innu- 
merable ways, such attachments are particu- 
larly alarming to the truly enlightened and 
independent patriot. How many opportuni- 
ties do they afford to tamper with domestic 
factions, to practise the arts of seduction, to 
mislead public opinion, to influence or awe 
the public councils ; such an attachment of 
a small or weak, towards a great and power- 
ful nation, dooms the former to be the satel- 
lite of the latter. 

AGAINST the insidious wiles of foreign in- 
fluence (I conjure you to believe me, fellow 
citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought 
to be conjlantly awake ; since history and ex- 
perience prove that foreign influence is one 
of the most baneful foes of repubUcan gov- 




ernmcnt. But that jealousy to be useful 
must be impartial ; else it becomes the instru- 
ment of tl\e very influence to be avoided, in- 
stead of a defence aj^ainst it. Excessive par- 
tiality for one foreign nation, and excessive 
dislike of another, cause those, whom 
they acluate, to sec danger only on one side, 
and serve to veil and even second the arts of 
influence on the other. Real patriots, who 
may resist the intrigues of the favourite, are 
liable to become suspecled and odious ; while 
its tools and dupes usurp the applause and 
confidence of the people, to surrender their 

THE great rule of conduct for us in re- 
gard to foreign nations, is, in extending our 
commercial relations, to have with them as 
little /(5//>/V^/ connediion as possible. So far 
as we have already formed engagements, let 
them be fulfilled with perfed good faith. — 
Here let us stop. 

EUROPE has a set of primary interests, 
which to us have none, or a very remote re- 
lation. Hence she must be engaged in fre- 
quent controversies, the causes of which are 
essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, 


therefore, it must be unwise in us to impli- 
cate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordi- 
nary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordi- 
nary combinations and collisions of her 
friendships, or enmities. 

OUR detached and distant situation, in- 
vites and enables us to pursue a different 
course. If we remain one people, under an 
efficient government, the period is not far 
off, when we may defy material injury from 
external annoyance ; when we may take 
such an attitude as will cause the neutrality, 
we may at any time resolve upon, to be scru- 
pulously respecled ; when belligerent nations, 
under the impossibility of making acquisi- 
tions upon us, will not lightly hazard the 
giving us provocation ; when we may choose 
peace or w'ar, as our interest, guided by jus- 
tice, shall counsel. 

WHY forego the advantages of so peculiar 
a situation ? why quit our own, to stand 
upon foreign ground ? w^hy, by interweav- 
ing our destiny with that of any part of 
Europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in 
the toils of European ambition, rivalship, in- 
terest, humour or caprice ? 

92 washikcton's 

IT is our true policy to steer clear of per- 
manent alliances, with any portion of the 
foreign world ; so far, I mean, as we are 
now at liberty to do it ; for let me not be 
understood as capable of patronizing infidel- 
ity to existing engagements. I hold the 
maxim no less applicable to public than to 
private affairs, that lionesty is always the 
best policy. I repeat it, therefore, let those 
engagements be observed in their genuine 
sense. But, in my opinion,it is unnecessary, 
and would be unwise to extend them. 

TAKING care always to keep ourselves, by 
suitable establishments, in a respectable de- 
fensive posture, we may safely trust to tem- 
porary alliances for extraordinary emergen- 

HARMONY, liberal intercourse with all 
nations, are recommended by policy, human- 
ity and interest. But even our commercial 
policy should hold an equal and impartial 
hand ; neither seeking or granting exclusive 
favours or preferences— consulting the natu- 
ral course of things ; diffusing and diversify- 
ing, by gentle means, the streams of com- 
merce, but forcing nothing j establishing. 


with the powers so disposed,in order to give 
trade a stable course, to define the rights of 
our merchants, and to enable the govern- 
ment to support them ; conventional rules 
of intercourse, the best that present circum- 
stances and mutual opinion will permit, but 
temporary, and liable to be from time to 
time abandoned or varied, as experience and 
circumstances shall diftate ; constantly keep- 
ing in view, that it is folly in one nation to 
look for disinterested favours from another ; 
that it must pay, with a portion of its inde- 
pendence, for whatever it may accept under 
that character j that by such acceptance, it 
may place itself in the condition of having 
given equivalents for nominal favours, and 
yet of being reproached with ingratitude for 
not giving more. There can be no greater 
error than to expect, or calculate, upon real 
favours from nation to nation. It is an il- 
lusion v/hich experience must cure, v/hich a 
just pride ought to discard. 

IN offering to you, my countrymen, these 
counsels ofanoldand affectionate friend,! dare 
not hope they will make the strong and last- 
ing impression I could \sdsh — that they will 
controul the usual current of the passions, or 

94.. Washington's 

prevent our nation from running the course 
which has hitherto marked the destiny of 
nations : but, if I may even Hatter myself, 
that they may be productive of some partial 
benefit, some occsasional good ; that they 
may now and then recur to moderate the 
fury of party spirit, to warn against the mis- 
chiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against 
the impostures of pretended patriotism ; this 
hope will be a full recompence for the solici- 
tude for your welfare, by which they have 
been didated. 

HOW far, in the discharge of my official 
duties, I have been guided by the principles 
which have been delineated, the public rec- 
ords and other evidences of my conduct 
must witness to you and to the world. To 
myself, the assurance of my own conscience 
is, that I have at least believed myself to be 
guided by them. 

IN relation to the still subsisting war in 
Europe, my proclamation of the 22d April, 
1793, is the index to my plan. Sanclioned 
by your approving voice, and by that of 
your representatives, in both houses of Con- 
gress, the spirit of that measure has continu* 



ally governed me ; uninfluenced by any at- 
tempts to deter or divert me from it. 

AFTER deHberate examination, with the 
aid of the best lights I could obtain, I was 
well satisfied that our country, under all the 
circumstances of the case.had a rijzht to take, 
and was bound in duty and interest to take, 
a neutral position. Having taken it, I deter- 
mined, as far as should depend on me, to 
maintain it, with moderation. 

THE considerations v/hlch respect the 
right to hold this conduct, it is not necessary 
on this occason to detail. I will only ob- 
serve, that according to my understanding 
of the matter, that right, so far from being 
denied by any of the belligerent powers, has 
been virtually admitted by all. 

THE duty of holding a neutral conduct 
may be inferred, without any thing more, 
from the obligation which justice and hu- 
manity impose on every nation, in cases in 
which it is free to ad, to miaintain inviolate 
the relations of peace and amity towards 
other nations. 

9 6 WAMIINcri'ON's 

th:: inducements of interest for observ- 
ing thAt conducl, will be best referred to 
your own refiedions and experience. With 
me, a predominant motive has been to en- 
deavour to gain time to our country to set- 
tle and mature its yet recent institutions, 
and to progress v/ithout interruption, to that 
degree of strength and consistency, which is 
necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the 
command of its own fortunes. 

THOUGH in reviewing the incidents of 
my administration, I am unconscious of in- 
tentional error, I am, nevertheless, too sen- 
sible of my defeds not to think it probable 
that I may have committed many errors. 
Whatever they may be, I fervently beseech 
the Almighty to avert or mitigate the evils, 
to which they may tend. I shall also carry 
with me the hope that my country will nev- 
er cease to view them with indulgence ; and 
that, after forty-five years of my hfe dedi- 
cated to its service, with an upright zeal, the 
faults of incompetent abilities will be con- 
signed to oblivion, as myself must soon be 
to the mansions of rest. 



RELYING on its kindncss in this as in oth- 
er things, and actuated by that fervent love 
towards it, which is so natural to a man who 
views in it the native soil of himself and his 
progenitors for several generations, I antici- 
pate with pleasing expe<5tation that retreat, 
in which I promise myself to realize, with- 
out alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking, 
in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the be- 
nign influence of good laws under a free gov- 
ernment — the ever favorite obje6b of my 
heart, and the happy reward, as I trust, of 
our mutual cares, labours and dangers. 






(•N i"^ \cci:pting the command of the 


Mount Vernon, July 13, 1798. 

i HAD the honour, on the evening 
of tlic 1 1 til instant, to receive from the hand 
of the secretary of war, your £ivour of the 
7th, announcing that you had, with the ad- 
vice and consent of the senate, appointed me 
" Lieutenant General and Commander in 
Chief of all the armies raised, or to be raised, 
for the service of the United States/' 

I CANNOT express how greatly affected I 
am at this new proof of public confidence, 
and the highly flattering manner in which 
you have been pleased to make the commu- 
nication ; at the same time, I must not con- 
ceal from you my earnest wish, that the 
choice had fallen upon a man less declined in 
years, and better qualified to encounter the 
usual vicissitudes of war. 


YOU know, sir, what calculation I had 
made relative to the probable course of 
events, on my retiring from office, and the 
determination I had consoled myself with, of 


Closing the remnant of my days in my pres- 
ent peaceful abode ; you will, therefore, be 
at no loss to conceive and appreciate the sen- 
sations I must have experienced, to bring 
my mind to any conclusion, that would 
pledge me, at so late a period of life, to leave 
scenes I sincerely love, to enter upon the 
boundless field of public action, incessant 
trouble, and high responsibility. 

IT was not possible for me to remain ig- 
norant of, or indifferent to, recent transac- 

THE condud of the Directory of France 
towards our country ; their insidious hostili- 
ty to its government ; their various practices 
to withdraw the affections of the people from 
it ; the evident tendency of their a6ts, and 
those of their agents, to countenance and in- 
vigorate opposition ; their disregard of sol- 
emn treaties and the laws of nations ; their 
war upon our defenceless commerce ; their 
treatment of our ministers of peace, and 
their demands, amounting to tribute, could 
not fail to excite in me corresponding senti- 
ments, with those my countrymen have so 
generally expressed in their affectionate ad- 


dresses to you. — Believe me, sir, no one can 
more cordially approve of the wise and pru- 
dent measures of your administration. They 
ought to inspire universal confidence, and 
will, no doubt, combined with the state of 
things, call from Congress such laws and 
means as will enable you to meet the full 
force and extent of the crisis, 

SATISFIED thereof, that you have sincere- 
ly wished and endeavoured to avert war, and 
exhausted, to the last drop, the cup of recon- 
ciliation, we can with pure hearts appeal to 
heaven for the justice of our cause ; and may 
confidently trust the final result to that kind 
providencce who has heretofore, and so oft- 
en, signally favoured the people of these U-^ 
nited States. 

THINKING in this manner, and feeling 
how incumbent it is upon every person, of 
every description, to contribute at all times to 
his country's welfare, especially in a moment 
like the present, when every thing we hold 
dear and sacred is so seriously threatened ; 
I have finally determined to accept the com- 
mission of commander in chief of the armies 
of the United States j with this reserve only. 


that I shall not be called into the field until 
the army is in a situation to require my pres- 
ence, or it becomes indispensable by the ur- 
gency of circumstances. 

IN making this reservation, I beg it may 
be understood, that I do not mean to with- 
hold any assistance to arrange and organize 
the army, which you think I can afford. I 
take the liberty also to mention, that I must 
decline having my acceptance considered as 
drawing after it any immediate charge upon 
the public ; or that I can receive any emolu- 
ments annexed to the appointment, before 
entering into a situation to incur expence. 

THE secretary of war being anxious to 
return to the seat of government, I have de- 
tained him no longer than was necessary to a 
full communication upon the several points 
he had in charge. 

"WITH very great respect and considera- 
tion, I have the honour to be, dear sir, your 
most obedient, humble servant. 


Pref\dcnt of the United States. 



House of Representatives, Dec. i8, 1799 

Immediately after the journals were 
read, General Marshall came into the 
house of representatives, apparently much 
agitated, and said, 


INFORMATION has just been received, that 
our illustrious fellow-citizen, the commander 
in chief of the American army, and the late 
president of the United States, is no more. 
Though this distressing intelligence is not cer- 
tain, there is too much reason to believe its 

AFTER receiving information of a nation- 
al calamity so heavy, and so afilicling, the 
house of representatives can be but ill fitted 
for public business. I move you, therefore, 
that we adjourn. 

The bouse inunediately adjourned. 



The following Message was received from the 
pRLsiDErJT of the United States. 

Gentlemen of the House of Kcprcscnlatlvcs, 

THE letter herewith transmitted will in- 
form you, that it has pleased Divine Provi- 
dence to remove from this life, our excellent 
fellow-citizen, GEORGE WASHINGTON, 
by the purity of his charader, and a long se- 
ries of services to his country, rendered illus- 
trious throu2:h the world. It remains for an 
affectionate and graterul people, in v/hose 

hearts he can never die, to pay suitable hon- 
our to his memory. 



" Mount Vernon, Dec. 16, 1799. 

'^ SJR^ 

" IT is with inexpressible grief that I have 
to announce to you the death of the great and 
good Gen. Washington. He died last even- 
ning, between i o and 1 1 o'clock, after a short 
illness of about twenty-four hours. His dis- 
order was an inflammatory sore throat, 
which proceeded from a cold, of which he 
made but little complaint on Friday. On 


Saturday morning about three o'clock, he 
became ill. Dr. Dick attended him in the 
morning, and Dr. Craik, of Alexandria, and 
Dr. Brown, of Port Tobacco, were soon af- 
ter called in. Every medical assistance was 
offered, but without the desired effed. His 
last scene corresponded with the whole tenor 
of his life. Not a groan, nor a complaint, 
escaped him, though in extreme distress.— 
With perfect resignation, and a full posses- 
sion of his reason, he closed his well-spent 
life. I have the honor to be, kc. 

" Tbe President cfthe U?uted States.'* 

Gen. Marshall, with deep sorrow on 
his countenance, and in a pathetic tone of 
voice, thus addressed the house : — 


THE melancholy event which was yester- 
day announced with doubt, has been render- 
ed but too certain. Our WASHINGTON is 
no more ! — The hero, the sage, and the pa- 
triot of America — the man on whom in times 
of danger, every eye was turned, and all 


hopes were placed, lives now, only in his 
own great iiclions, and in the hearts of an af- 
fectionate and afi'ecled people. 

IF, sir, it had not been usual, openly to 
testify respect for the memory of those 
whom heaven had selected as its instruments, 
for dispensing good to man : yet, such has 
been tJie uncommon worth, and such the ex- 
traordinary incidents which have marked the 
life of him whose loss we all deplore, that 
the whole American nation, impelled by the 
same feelings, would call with one voice for 
a public manifestation of that sorrow which 
is so deep and so universal. 

MORE than any other individual, and as 
much as to one individual was possible, has 
he contributed to found this our wide 
spreading empire, and to give to the western 
world its independence and its freedom. Hav- 
ing efFeded the great objed for which he was 
placed at the head of our armies, we have 
seen him convert the sword into the plough- 
share, and voluntarily sink the soldier in the 



WHEN the debility of our federal system 
had become manifest, and the bonds which 
connected the parts of this vast continent 
were dissolving, we had seen him the chief 
of those patriots who formed for us a consti- 
tution, which, by preserving the union, will, 
I trust, substantiate and perpetuate those 
blessings our revolution had promised to be- 

IN obedience to the general voice of his 
country, calling on him to preside over a 
great people, we have seen him once more 
quit the retirement he loved, and in a season 
more stormy and tempestuous than war it- 
self, with calm and wise determination pur- 
sue the true interests of the nation, and contrib- 
ute,more than any other could contribute,to 
the establishment of that system of policy 
which will, I trust, yet preserve our peace, 
our honour, and our independence. Hav- 
ing been twice unanimously chosen the chief 
magistrate of a free people, we see him, at a 
time when his re-eledion with the universal 
suffrage could not have been doubted, afford- 
ing the world a rare instance of moderation, 
by withdrawing from his high station ta the 
peaceful walks of private life. 


HowKVER public confidence may change, 
and the public .ifl'cdions fluctuate with re- 
specl to others, yet, with respe^l to him, 
they have, in war and in peace, in public and 
in private life, been as steady as his own firm 
mind, and as constant as his own exalted vir- 

LET us then, Mr. Speaker, pay the last 
tribute of respecl and affection to our depart- 
ed friend. Let the grand council of the na- 
tion display those sentiments which the na- 
tion feels. 

FOR this purpose, I hold in my hand 
some resolutions which I will take the liberty 
to offer to the house : 

" RESOLVED, that this house will wait 
on the president of the United States, in 
condolence of this mournful event : 

" RESOLVED, that the speaker's chair be 
shrouded with black, and that the members 
and officers of the house wear black during 
the session : 

" RESOLVED, that a committee, in con- 
jundion with one from the senate, be ap- 


pointed to consider on the most suitable man- 
ner of paying honour to the memory of the 
man, first in war, first in peace, and first in 
the hearts of his country : 

'^ RESOLVED, that this house, when it ad- 
journ, do adjourn to Monday." 

THESE resolutions were unanimously 
agreed to. Sixteen members were appoint- 
ed on the third resolution. 

GENERALS Marshall and SMiTH,having 
waited on the president to know when he 
would be ready to receive the house — the 
president named one o'clock this day. The 
house accordingly waited on him, when the 
speaker thus addressed the president : 


THE house of representatives, penetrated 
with a sense of the irreparable loss sustained 
by the nation, by the death of that great 
and good man, the illustrious and beloved 
WASHINGTON, wait on you. Sir, to ex- 
press their condolence on this melancholy 
and distressing event. 

no APPf.NDIX. 

To ivhich the President replied. 

Gentlemen of the House of Representatives, 

I RKCF.ivE with the greatest resped 
and affeclion, the condolence of the house 
of representatives, on the melancholy and af- 
IHcling event in the death of the most illus- 
trious and beloved personage which this 
country ever produced. I sympathize with 
you — ^with the nation, and with good men, 
through the world, in the irreparable loss sus- 
tained by us all. 



THE senate of the United States, this 
day, sent the following letter of condolence 
to the president, by a comr»itte of its mem- 
bers, to which he returned the annexed an- 



THE senate of the United States respect- 
fully take leave, sir, to express to you their 
deep regret for the loss their country sus- 


tains in the death of GENERAL GEORGE 

THIS event, so distressing to all our fel- 
low citizens, must be pccuUarly heavy on 
you, who have long been associated with 
him in deeds of patriotism. Permit us, sir, 
to mingle our tears with yours : on tliis oc- 
casion it is manly to weep, To lose such a 
man at such a crisis is no common calamity 
to the w^orld : our country mourns her fath- 
er. The Almighty Disposer of human events 
has taken from us our greatest benefaftor 
and ornament. It becomes us to submit 
with reverence to him, who " maketh dark- 
ness his pavilion." 

WITH patriotic pride we review the life 
of our WASHINGTON, and compare him 
with those of other countries who have been 
pre-eminent in fame. Ancient and modern 
names are diminished before him. Great- 
ness and guilt have too often been allied; but 
his fame is whiter than it is brilliant. The 
destroyers*of nations stood abashed at the 
majesty of his virtues. It reproved the in- 
temperance of their ambition, and darkened 
the splendour of victory. The scene is closed. 

112 AVPl.NDIX. 

and \vc arc no lonorcr anxious lest misfor- 
tunc should sully his glory ; he has travelled 
to the end othis journey, and carried with 
him an increasing weight of glory ; he has 
deposited it safely, where misfortune cannot 
tarnish it, where malice cannot blast it. 
Favoured of heaven, he departed without 
exhibiting tlic wcaknes of humanity ; mag- 
nanimous in death, the darkness of the grave 
could not obscure his brightness. 

SUCH was the man v/hom we deplore. 
Thanks to God, his glory is consummated ; 
WASHINGTON yet lives on earth in his 
spotless example — his spirit is in heaven. 

LET his countrymen consecrate the mem- 
ory of the heroic general, the patriotic 
statesman, and the virtuous sage : let them 
teach their children never to forget that the 
fruits of his labours, and his example, are 
their inheritance. 



I RECEIVE with the most respedful and 
afFeclionate sentiments, in this impressive 



address, the obliging expressions of your re- 
gret, for the loss our country has sustained, 
in the death of her most esteemed, beloved, 
and admired citizen. 

IN the multitude of my thoughts and re- 
colkccions en this melancholy event,you will 
permit me only to say, that I have seen him 
in the days of adversity, in some of the 
scenes of his deepest distress and most trying 
perplexities — I have also attended him in his 
highest elevation and most prosperous felici- 
ty — with uniform admiration of his wisdom, 
moderation and constancy. 

AMONG all our original associates, in that 
mem.orable league of the continent in 1774, 
which first expressed the sovereign wiH of a 
free nation in America, he was the only one 
remaining in the general government. Al- 
though, with a constitution more enfeebled 
than his, at an age v/hen he thouo;ht it nee- 
essary to prepare for retirement, I feel my- 
self alone, bereaved of my last brother — yet 
I derive a strong consolation from the unani- 
mous disposition, which appears in all ages 
and classes, to mingle their sorrows with 
mine, on this common calamity to the 
Tworld. p 


THE life of our WASHINGTON cannot 
suffer by a comparison with those of other 
countries, who have been most celebrated 
and exalted by fame. The attributes and 
decorations of royalty, could have only serv- 
ed to eclipse the majesty of those virtues 
which made him, from being a modest citi- 
zen, a more resplendent luminary. Misfor- 
tune, had he lived, could hereafter have sul- 
lied his glory only with those superficial 
minds, who, believing that characters and 
aclions are marked by success alone, rarely 
deserve to enjoy it. Malice could never have 
blasted his honour, and envy made him a 
singular exception to her universal rule. 

FOR himself he had lived enough, to life 
and to glory ; for his fellow-citizens, if their 
prayers could have been answ^ered, he would 
have been immortal. For me, his departure 
is at a most unfortunate moment. Trust- 
ing, however, in the wise and righteous do- 
minion of providence over the passions of 
men, and the results of their councils and 
adions, as well as over their lives, nothing 
remains for me, but humble resignation. 


HIS example is now complete, and it will 
teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citi- 
zens, and men, not only in the present age, 
but in future generations, as long as our 
history shall be read. If a Trajan found a 
Pliny, a Marcus Aurelius can never want 
biographers, eulogists, or historians. 


IN the house of representatives, General 
Marshall made a report, in part, from the 
joint committee appointed to consider a suit- 
able mode of commemorating the death of 
Gen. Washington. 

HE reported the following resolutions : 

Resolved by the se?iate mid house of represen- 
taiives of the United States of America, in con- 
gress assembled, that a marble monument be 
creeled, by the United States, in the capitol 
of the city of Washington, and that the 
family of General WASHINGTON be re- 
quested to permit his body to be deposited 
under it, and that the monument be so de- 
signed as to commemorate the great events 
of his military and political life. 


And be it further resolved^ that there be a 
funeral procession from Congress hall, to the 
German Lutheran cliurch, in memory of 
Thursday, the 26th inst. and that an oration 
be prepared at the request of Congress, to 
be delivered before both houses on that day ; 
and that the president of the senate, and 
speaker of the house of representatives, be 
desired to request one of the members of 
Congress to prepare and deliver the same. 

A7id be it further resolved^ that it be rec- 
ommended to the people of the United 
States, to w^ear crape on their left arm, as 
mourning, for thirty days. 

And be it further resolved^ that the presi- 
dent be requested to dire6l a copy of these 
resolutions to be transmitted to Mrs. Wash- 
ington, assuring her of the profound re- 
sped Congress will ever bear to her person 

and character, of their condolence on the late 
^filicling dispensation of providence, and en^ 
treating her assent to the interment of the 
remains of General Washington in the man- 
ner expressed in the first resolution. 


And be it further resohed, that the presi- 
dent be requested to issue a proclamation, 
notifying to the people throughout the U- 
nited States, the recommendation contained 
in the third resolution. 

THESE resolutions passed both houses 


THIS day, in the Iiouse of representatives, 
the speaker informed the house, that in con- 
formity to the second resolution passed on 
Monday, Major-General Lee had been ap- 
pointed, by the president of the senate, and 
the speaker of the house of representatives, 
to prepare and deliver the oration in honour 
of our late illustrious commander in chief, 
on Thursday next, which appointment he 
had been pleased to accept. 

A MESSAGE was rcccived from the presi- 
dent of the United States, notifying the 
house that he had agreed to the resolutions 
passed on Monday, in honour to the memory 
of GENERAL WASHINGTON, and depos- 
ited them among the rolls and records of the 
United States, 



THE 26th DECEMBER. i799- 


IN obedience to your will, I rise your 
humble organ, with the hope of executing a 
mrt of the system of public mourning which 
you have been pleased to adopt, commemo- 
rative of the death of the most illustrious 
and most beloved personage this coun- 
trv has ever nroduced ; and which, while it 
transmits to posterity your sense of the aw- 
ful event, faintly represents your knowledge 
of the consummate excellence you so cordial- 
ly honour. 

DESPERATE indeed is any attempt on 
earth to meet correspondently this dispensa- 
tion of heaven ; for while with pious resig- 
nation we submit to the will of an all-gra- 
cious providence, we can never cease lament- 
ing, in our finite view of omnipotent wis- 
dom, the heart-rending privation for which 
our nation weeps. When the civilized 
world shakes to its centre ; when every mo- 


ment gives birth to strange and momentous 
changes ; when our peaceful quarter of the 
globe, exempt as it happily has been from 
any share in the slaughter of the human race, 
may yet be compelled to abandon her pa- 
cific policy, and to risk the doleful casualities 
of war : what limit is there to the extent of 
our loss ? — none within the reach of my 
words to express ; none which your feelings; 
will not disavow. 

THE founder of our federate republic — 
our bulwark in war, our guide in peace, !> 
no more ! oh that this were but questiona- 
ble ! hope, the comforter of the wretched, 
would pour into our agonizing hearts its 
balmy dew. But, alas ! there is no hope for 
us ; our WASHINGTON is removed forev- 
er ! possessing the stoutest fram.e, and pur- 
est mind, he had passed nearly to his sixty- 
eighth year., in the enjoyment of high health, 
when, habituated by his care of us to neg- 
lect himself, a slight cold, disregarded, be- 
came inconvenient on Friday, oppressive on 
Saturday, and, defying every medical inter- 
position, before the morning of Sunday, put 
an end to the best of men. An end did I 
say ? — his fame survives ! bounded only by 


the limits of tlic earth, and by the extent of 
tlie human mind. He survives in our hearts, 
in the growing knowledge of our children, 
in the afTcclion of the good throughout the 
world ; and when our monuments shall be 
done away ; when nations now existing shall 
be no more ; when even our young and far- 
spreading empire shall have perished, still will 
our WASHINGTON'S glory unfaded shine, 
and die not until love of virtue cease on 
earth, or earth itself sinks into chaos. 

HOW, my fellow citizens, shall I single to 
your grateful hearts his pre-eminent worth ! 
where shall I begin in opening to your view 
a characfer throughout sublime ? shall I speak 
of his warlike achievements, all springing 
from obedience to his country's will — all di- 
rected to his country's good ? 

WILL you go with me to the banks of 
the Monongahela, to see your youthful WASH- 
INGTON, supporting, in the dismal hour of 
Indian vidory, the ill-fated Braddock, and 
saving, by his judgment, and by his valour, 
the remains of a defeated army, pressed by 
the conquering savage foe ? Or, when op- 
pressed America, nobly resolving to risk her 


all in defence of her violated rights, he was 
elevated by the unanimous voice of Congress 
to the commancT of her armies : vv'iil you fol- 
low Iiim to the high grounds of Boston, 
wlierc to an undisciplined, courageous, and 
v'irtuous yeomanry, his presence gave the 
litability of system, and infused the invinci- 
bility of love of country ; or shall I carry 
you to the painful scenes of Long-Island, 
York-Island and New- Jersey, v/hen, combat- 
ing superior and gallant armies, aided by 
powerful fleets, and led by chiefs high in the 
roll of fame, he stood the bulwark of our 
safety ; undismayed by disaster ; unchanged 
by change of fortune. Or will you \dew 
him in the precarious fields of Trenton, 
where deep gloom unnerving every arm, 
reigned triumphant through our thinned, 
worn down, unaided ranks ; himself un- 
moved. — Dreadful was the night. It was 
about this time of winter — the storm raged — 
the Delaware, rolling furiously with floating 
ice, forbad the approach of man. WASH- 
INGTON, self collecled,viewed the tremend- 
ous scene — his country called ; unappallcd by 
surrounding dangers, he passed to the hos- 
tile shore ; he fought ; he conquered. The 
morninsr sun cheered the American world. 




Our country rose on tlu: event; and her 
dauntless chief, pursuhig his blow, completed 
in the lawns of Princeton, wliat his vast soul 
had conceived on the shores of Delaware. 

THENCE to the strong grounds of Morris- 
town he led his small but gallant band ; and 
through an eventful winter, by the high ef- 
forts of his genius, whose matchless force 
was measurable only by the growth of diffi- 
culties, he held in check formidable hostile 
legions, conducted by a chief experienced in 
the art of war, and famed for his valour on 
the ever memorable heights of Abraham, 
where fell Wolfe, Montcalm, and since, 
ourmuchlamentedMoNTGOMERY — all cover- 
ed with glory. In this fortunate interval,pro- 
duced by his masterly condu6l, our fathers, 
ourselves, animated by his resistless example, 
ralhed around our country's standard, and 
continued to follow her beloved chief 
through the various and trying scenes to 
which the destinies of our union led. 

WHO is there that has forgotten the vales 
of Brandywine — the fields of Germantown 
— or the plains of Monmouth ? every where 
present, w^ants of every kind obstruding, 



numerous and valiant armies encountering, 
himself a host, he assuao-ed our sufTerinccs, 
limited our privations, and upheld our tot- 
tering republic. Shall I display to you the 
spread of the fire of his soul, by rehearsing 
the praises of the hero of Saratoga, and his 
much loved compeer of the Carolinas ? no ; 
our WASHINGTON wears not borrowed 
glory : to Gates — to Greene, he gave with- 
out reserve the applause due to their emi- 
nent merit ; and long may the chiefs of Sar- 
atoga, and of Eutaws, receive the grateful 
respect of a grateful people. 

MOVING in his own orbit, he imparted 
heat and light to his most distant satellites ; 
and combining the physical and moral force 
of all within his sphere, with irresistible 
weight he took his course, commiserating 
folly, disdaining vice, dismaying treason, and 
checking despondency ; until the auspic- 
ious hour arrived, when, united with the in- 
trepid forces of a potent and magnanimous 
ally, he brought to submission the since con- 
queror of India ; thus finishing his long ca- 
reer of military glory with a lustre corres- 
ponding to his great name, and in this his 

124 appj:ndix. 

last acl of war,aflixing the seal of fate to our 
nation's birth. 

TO the horrid din of battle sweet peace 
succeeded ; and our virtuous chief, mindful 
only of the common good, in a moment 
tempting personal aggrandizement, hushed 
the discontents of growing sedition ; and, 
surrendering his power into the hands from 
which he had received it, converted his 
sword into a ploughshare, teaching an ad- 
miring world that to be truly great, you 
must be truly good. 

WAS I to stop here, the picture would be 
incomplete, and the task imposed unfinished. 
Great as was our WASHINGTON in war, 
and as much as did that greatness contribute 
to produce the American republic, it is not 
in war alone his pre-eminence stands con- 
spicuous : his various talents combining all 
the capacities of a statesman with those of a 
soldier, fitted him alike to guide the councils 
and the armies of our nation. Scarcely had 
he rested from his martial toils, while his in- 
valuable parental advice was still sounding 
in our ears, when he who had been our 
shield and our sword, w^as called forth to 



act a less splendid but more important 

POSSESSING a clear and penetrating mind, 
a strong and sound judgment, calmness and 
temper for deliberation, with invincible firm- 
ness and perseverance in resolutions mature- 
ly formed, drawing information from all, 
acting from himself, with incorruptible in- 
tegrity and unvarying patriotism : his own 
superiority and the public confidence ahke 
marked him as the man designed by heaven 
to lead in the great political, as well as mili- 
tary events, which have distinguished the 
era of his life. 

THE finger of an over-ruling providence, 
pointing at WASHINGTON, was neither 
mistaken nor unobserved ; when, to realize 
the vast hopes to which our revolution had 
given birth, a change of political system be- 
came indispensable. 

HOW novel, how grand the spectacle ! in- 
dependent states stretched over an immense 
territory, and knov/n only by common diffi- 
culty, clinging to their union as the rock of 
their safety, deciding by frank comparison 
of their relative condition, to rear on that 

126 Ai'Pr,NDIX. 

rock, under the guidance of reason, a com- 
mon qovernnicnt through wliosc command- 
ing; protection, liberty aud order, with their 
long train of blessings,should be safe to them- 
selves, and the sure inheritance of their pos- 

Tins arduous task devolved on citizens 
selecled by the people, from knowledge of 
their wisdom, and confidence in their virtue. 
In this august assembly of sages and of pa- 
triots, WASHINGTON of course was found ; 
and, as if acknowledged to be most wise, 
where all were wise, with one voice he was 
declared their chief. How well he merited 
this rare distinclion, how faithful were the 
kbours of himself and his compatriots, the 
work of their hands, and our union,strength 
and prosperity, the fruits of that work, best 

BUT to have essentially aided in present- 
ing to his country this consummation of her 
hopes, neither satisfied the claims of his fel- 
low-citizens on his talents, nor those duties 
which the possession of those talents im- 
posed. Heaven had not infused into his 
mind such an uncommon share of its ethe- 


rial spirit to remain unemployed, nor bestow- 
ed on him his genius unaccompanied widi 
the corresponding duty of devoting it to the 

I common good. To have framed a constitu- 
tion, was sliewiug only, without realizing, 
the general happiness. This great work re- 

^ mained to be done ; and America, stedlast 
in her preference, with one voice summoned 

^ her beloved WASHINGTON, unpractised 
as he was in the duties of civil administra- 
tion, to execute this last acl in the comple- 
tion of the national felicitv. Obedient to 
her call, he assumed the high office vv ith that 
self-distrust peculiar to his innate modesty, 
the constant attendant of pre-eminent virtue. 
"What was the burst of joy through our anx- 
ious land on this exhilerating event is kno\Mi 
to us all. The aged, the young, the brave, 
the fair, rivalled each other in demonstrations 
of their gratitude ; and this high wrouglit, 

delightful scene, was heightened in its efTccl, 
by the singular contest between the zeal of 
the bestowers and the avoidance of the re- 
ceiver of the honors bestowed. Commenc- 
ing his administration, what heart is not 
charmed with the recolledion of the pure 
and wise principles announced by hiniself, as 
the basis of his political life. lie best un- 


dcrstood the indissoluble union between vir- 
tue and hapjMncss, between duty and advan- 
tage, between ilie genuine maxims of an hon- 
est and magnanimous policy, and the solid 
rev\ ards of public prosperity and individual 
felicity ; watching with an equal and com- 
prehensive eye over this great assemblage of 
communities and interests, he laid the foun- 
dations of our national policy intheunerring, 
immutable principles of morality, based on 
religion, exemplifying the pre-eminence of 
a free government, by all the attributes which 
•win the affeclions of its citizens, or command 
the respect of the world. 

*' O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint!" 

LEADING tln'ough the complicated diffi- 
cvdties produced by previous obligations and 
conflicling interests, seconded by succeeding 
houses of congress, enlightened and patriotic, 
he surmounted ail original obstruclion, and 
brightened the path of our national felicity. 

THE presidential term expiring, his solic- 
itude to exchange exaltation for humility, 
returned with a force, increased with in- 
crease of age ; and he had prepared his fare- 
well address to his countrymen, proclaim- 
ing his intention, when the united interposi- 


tion of all around him, enforced by the 
•eventful prospects of the epoch, produced a 
further sacrifice of incHnation to duty. The 
election of president followed, and WASH- 
INGTON, by the unanimous vote of the na^ 
tion, was called to resume the chief magis- 
tracy. V/hat a wonderful fixture of confi- 
dence ! Which attracts most our admiration, 
a people so correct, or a citizen combining 
an assemblage of talents forbidding rivalry, 
and stifling even en\'y itself ? Such a nation 
ought to be happy, such a chief must be for- 
ever revered. 

WAR, long menaced by the Indian tribes, 
now broke out ; and the terrible conflict, 
deluging Europe with blood, began to shed 
its baneful influence over our happy land. 
To the first, outstretching his invincible arm, 
under the orders of the gallant Wayne, the 
American Eagle soared triumphant through 
distant forests. Peace followed victory ; and 
the melioration of the condition of the ene- 
my, followed peace. Godlike virtue, which 
uplifts even the subdued savage. 

TO the second he opposed himself. New 
and delicate was the conjuncture, and great 
was the stake. Soon did his penetrating 



mind discern and seize the only course, con- 
tinuing to us :ill the felicity enjoyed. He is- 
sued his proclamation of neutrality. This 
index to his whole subsequent conduct, was 
sanctioned by the approbation of both hous- 
es of Congress, and by the approving voice 
of the people. 

TO this sublime policy he inviolably ad- 
hered, unmoved by foreign intrusion, un- 
shaken by domestic turbulence. 

" Justum et tenacem propositi virum, 
Noncivium ardor pravajubentium, 
Non vultus instantis tyranni, 
Mente quatit sollda." 

MAINTAINING his pacific systcm at the 
expense of no duty, America, faithful to her- 
self, and unstained in her honour, continued 
to enjoy the delights of peace, while afflicled 
Europe mourns in every quarter under the 
accumulated miseries of an unexampled war ; 
miseries in which our happy country must 
have shared, had not our pre-eminent 
WASHINGTON been as firm in council as 
he was brave in the field. 

PURSUING stedfastly his course, he held 
safe the public happiness, preventing foreign 
war, and quelling internal discord, till the 



revolving period of a third eleclion approach- 
ed, when he executed his interrupted, but in- 
extinguishable desire, of returning to the 
humble walks of private life. 

THE promulgation of his fixed resolution, 
stopped the anxious wishes of an affeclionate 
people, from adding a third unanimous tes- 
timonial of their unabated confidence in the 
man so long enthroned in their hearts. 
When before was affection like this exhibited 
on earth ? — turn over the records of ancient 
Greece — review the annals of mighty Rome 
— examine the volumes of modern Europe ; 
you search in vain. America and her 
WASHINGTON only afford the dignified 

THE illustrious personage called by the 
national voice in succession to the arduous 
office of guiding a free people, had new diffi- 
culties to encounter : The amicable effort of 
settling our difficulties with France, begun 
by WASHINGTON, and pursued by his sue 
cessor in virtue as in station, proving abor- 
tive, America took measures of self-defence. 
No sooner was the pubUc mind roused by a 
prospecl of danger, than every eye was turn- 



ed to the friend i)f all, though fecludcd from 
public view, and grey in public fervicc. The 
virtuous veteran, following his plough, re- 
ceived the unexped:ed fummons with ming- 
led emotions of indignation at the unmerited 
ill-treatment of his country, and of a deter- 
mination once more to risk his all in her de- 

THE annunciation of these feelings, in his 
affecling letter to the president, accepting 
the command of the army, concludes his of- 
ficial conducl. 

FIRST in war, first in peace, and first in 
the hearts of his countrymen, he was second 
to none in the humble and endearing scenes 
of private life : pious, just, humane, tempe- 
rate, and sincere ; uniform,dignified,and com- 
manding, his example was as edifying to all 
around him as were the efFecls of that exam- 
ple lasting. 

TO his equals he was condescending ; to 
his inferiors kind ; and to the dear objed: of 
his affections exemplarily tender ; correct 
throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, 
and virtue always felt his fostering h^d ; 


the purity of his private character gave ef- 
fulgence to his public virtues. 

HIS last scene comported with the whole 
tenor of his Hfe : although in extreme pain, 
not a sigh, not a groan escaped him ; and 
with undisturbed serenity he closed his well 
spent life. Such was the man America has 
lost ! such was the man for whom our na- 
tion mourns ! 

METHiNKS I see his august image, and 
hear, falling from his venerable lips, these 
deep sinking words : 

" CEASE, SONS of America, lamenting 
our separation : go on, and confirm by your 
wisdom the fruits of our joint councils, joint 
efforts, and common dangers. Reverence 
religion ; diffuse knowledge throughout 
your land ; patronize the arts and sciences ; 
let liberty and order be inseparable compan- 
ions ; controul party spirit, the bane of free 
government ; observe good faith to, and cul- 
tivate peace with all nations ; shut up every 
avenue to foreign influence ; contract rather 
than extend national connexions ; rely on 
yourselves only — ^be American in thought 
and deed. Thus will you give immortality 


to that union, which was the constant obje<^ 
of my terrestrial labours : thus will you pre- 
serve undisturbed to the latest posterity, the 
felicity of a people to me most dear ; and 
thus will you supply (if my happiness is 
now aught to you) the only vacancy in the 
round of pure bliss high heaven bestows.'* 





Whereas the congress of the Uni- 
ted States have this day resolved," That it be 
recommended to the people of the United 
States to assemble on the twenty-second day 
of February next, in such numbers and man- 
ner as may be convenient, publicly to testify- 
their grief for the death of Gen. GEORGE 
WASHINGTON, by suitable eulogies, ora- 
tions and discourses, or by public prayers :" 
and, " That the President be requested to 
issue a proclamation for the purpose of car- 
rying the foregoing resolution into effect.'* 
NOW, THEREFORE, I, John Adams, Pre- 
sident of the United States of America, do 
hereby proclaim the same accordingly. 

GIVEN under my hand and the seal of 
the United States, at Philadelphia, the 
sixth day of January, in the year of 
our Lord, one thousand eight hun- 
dred, and of the independence of the 
Said states the twenty fourth. 


By the President, 
TiMOTHV Pjckerinc, Secretary of State- 


3^ Al'l'hNDIX 

Alexandria, (Virg.) December 21, 1795. 




OOME time iivthc night of Friday, the 
loth instant, having been exposed to a rain 
on the preceding day. General Washington 
was attacked with an inflammatory affedion 
of the upper part of the wind pipe, called in 
technical language Cynache Trachealis, The 
disease commenced with a violent asrue, ac- 
companied v^ith som.e pain in the upper and 
fore part of the throat, a sense of stricture 
in the same part, a cough, and a difficult, 
rather than a painful deglutition, which were 
soon succeeded by fever and a quick and la- 
borious respiration. The necessity of blood- 
letting suggesting itself to the General, he 
procured a bleeder in the neighbourhood, 
who took from his arm in the night twelve 
'or fourteen ounces of blood. He could not 
by any means be prevailed on by the family 
•to send for the attending physician till the 
following morning, who arrived at 'Mount 
Vernon at about ii o'clock on Saturday. 
Discovering the case to be highly alarming^ 
and foreseeing the fatal tendency of the dis- 


ease, two consulting physicians were imme- 
diately sent for, who arrived, one at half af- 
ter three, and the other at four o'clock in 
the afternoon : in the mean time were em- 
ployed two pretty copious bleedings, a blister 
was applied to the part affecled, two mode- 
rate doses of calomel were given, and an in- 
jeclion v/as administered, which operated on 
the lov/er intestines, but all without any per- 
ceptible advantage, the respiration becoming 
still more diilicult and distressing. Upon the 
arrival of tlic first of the consulting physi- 
cians, it was agreed, as there were yet no 
signs of accumulation in the bronchial ves- 
sels of the lungs, to try the result of anoth- 
er bleeding, when about thirty-two ounces of 
blood were drawn, without the smallest ap- 
parent alleviation of the disease. Vapours of 
vinegar and water were frequently inhaled, 
ten grains of calomel were given, succeeded 
by repeated doses of emetic tartar, amount- 
ing in all to five or six grains, with no other 
effecl than a copious discharge from the bow- 
els. The powers of life seemed now mani- 
festly yielding to the force of the disorder ; 
blisters were applied to the extremities, to- 
gether with a cataplasm of bran and vinegar 




to the throat. Speaking, which was painful 
from the beginning, now became ahiiost im- 
pracliicable ; respiration grew more and more 
contra<5led and imperfed, till half after 1 1 
on Saturday night, retaining the full posses- 
sion of his intellecl: — when he expired with- 
out a struggle. 

HE was fully impressed at the beginning 
of his complaint, as wxll as through every 
succeeding stage of it, that its conclusion 
would be mortal ; submitting to the several 
exertions made for his recovery, rather as a 
duty, than from any expectation of their ef- 
ficacy. He considered the operations of death 
upon his system as coeval with the disease ; 
and several hours before his death, after re- 
peated efforts to be understood, succeeded in 
expressing a desire that he might be permit- 
ted to die without further interruption. 

DURING the short period of his illness, he 
economized his time, in the arrangement of 
such few concerns as required his attention, 
with the utmost serenity ; and anticipated his 
approaching dissolution with every demon- 
stration of that equanimity for which his 



whole life has been so uniformly and singu- 
larly conspicuous. 

JAMES CRAIK, Attending Physician. 
FJ JSHA C. DICK, Consulting Physician. 


Extrad of a letter from a correspondent in Alex- 
andria^ dated Dec. 19, 1799. 

« Yesterday I attended the Funenl 
of the saviour of our country at Mount Ver- 
non ; and had the honour of being one who 
carried his body to the vault. He was borne 
by military gentlemen, and brethren of our 
lodge, of which he was formerly master. I 
inclose you a sketch of the procession. To 
describe the scene 'is impossible. The coffin 
bore his sword and apron ; and the members 
of the lodge walked as mourners. His horse 
was led, properly caparisoned, by two of his 
servants, in mourning. 

'' AS I helped place his body in the vault, 
and stood at the door while funeral service 
was performing, I had the best opportunity 
of observing the countenances of all. Every 


one was aflcclcd, but none so much as his 
domestics of all ages.' 




Georgetown, December 20, 1799. 

ON Wednesday last, the mortal part of 
\ Washington the great — the father of his 
country and the friend of man, was consigned 
Vo the tomb, with solemn honours and fune- 
ral pomp. 

A MULTITUDE of pcrsons assembled, from 
many miles around, at Mount Vernon, the 
choice abode and last residence of the illus- 
trious chief. There were the groves, the 
spacious avenues, the beautiful and sublime 
scenes, the noble mansion ; but, alas ! the 
august inhabitant was now no more. That 
great soul was gone. His mortal part was 
there indeed j but ah ! how afFeding ! how 
awful the spe6lacle of such worth and great- 
ness, thus, to mortal eyes, fallen : yes ! fallen ! 
fallen ! 

IN the long and lofty portico, where oft 
the hero walked in all his glory, now lay the 


shrouded corpse. The countenance still 
composed and serene, seemed to express tlic 
dignity of the spirit which lately dwelt in 
that lifeless form. There those who paid the 
last sad honours to the benefaclor of his 
country, took an impressive, a farewel view. 

ON the ornament, at the head of the cof- 
fin, was inscribed Surge ad Judicium ; about 
the middle of the coffin, Gloria Deo ^ and 
on the silver plate, 


(George ISaai^ington, 


^t. 68. 

BETWEEN three and four o'clock, the 
sound of artillery from a vessel in the river, 
firing minute guns, awoke afresh our solemn 
sorrow ; the corpse was moved ; a band of 
music with mournful melody, melted the 
soul into all the tenderness of woe. 

THE procession was formed and moved 
on in the following order : 


1 r 4- r with arms reversed. \ Guard, 
In tan try, 3 c 



THE gcncrars horse, with his saddle, hol- 
sters, and pistols. 

CoL Sim MS, JHB Co!. Gilpin, 

Col, Ramsay, ^^^H Coi, Marsteller, 

CoL Payne, ^^^V CoL Little, 


Masonic Brethren, 


WHEN the procession had arrived at the 
bottom of the elevated lawn, on the banks 
of the Potomac, where the family vault is 
placed, the cavalry halted, the infantry 
marched towards the Mount and formed the 
inhnes ; the clergy% the masonic brothers, 
and the citizens, descended to the vault, and 
the funeral service of the church was per- 
formed. The firing was repeated from the 
vessel in the river, and the sounds echoed 
from the woods and hills around. 


THREE general discharges by the infan- 
try, the cavah'y, and eleven pieces of artil- 
lery, which lined the banks of the Potomac 
back of the vault, paid the last tribute to the 
entombed commander in chief of the armiies 
of the United States, and to the venerable 
departed hero. 

THE sun was now setting. Alas ! the 
SUN OF GLORY was sct forcvcr. No — the 
name of WASHINGTON, the American 
President and General will triumph over 
death ; the unclouded brightness of liis glory 
will illuminate future ages. 


MR. Shaw, secretary to the president, 
communicated the following message : 

Gentlemen of the Fenate, and 

Gentlemen of the House of Rcprcicntatives, 

IN compliance with the request in one 
of the resolutions of Con2;ress of the 2 ist of 
December last, I transmitted a copy of tliosc 
resolutions by my secretary, Mr. Shaw, to 
Mrs. Washington, assuring her of the pro- 
found respect Congress will ever bear to her 

144 APPi-NDIX. 

person and character ; of their condolence in 
the late afflicling dispensation of providence, 
and intrcating her assent to the interment of 
the remains of General GEORGE WASH- 
INGTON, in the manner expressed in the 
first resolution. As the sentiments of that 
virtuous lady, not less beloved by this nation 
than she is at present greatly afflicled, can 
never be so w^ell expressed as in her own 
words ; I transmit to Congress her original 

IT would be an attempt of too much deli- 
cacy, to make any comments upon it ; but 
there can be no doubt, that the nation at 
large, as well as all the branches of the gov- 
ernment, will be highly gratifieds by any ar- 
rangement which may diminish the sacrifice 
she makes of her individual feelings. 


United States, Jan. 8, 1800. 

— :^i^*5^©^^^f^^ 


Mount Vernon, Dec. 31, 1799- 


WHILE I feel with keenest anguish, the 
late dispensations of Divine Providence, I 



cannot be insensible to the mournful tributes 
of respe(fl: and veneration, which are paid to 
the memory of my dear deceased husband ; 
and, as Iiis best services and most anxious 
\'idshes, were always devoted to the welfare 
and happiness of his country, to know that 
they were truly appreciated, and gratefully 
remembered, affords no inconsiderable con- 

TAUGHT by the great example, which I 
have so long had before me, never to oppose 
mj private wishes to the public will, I must 
consent to the request made by congress, 
which you have had the goodness to trans- 
mit me, and in doing this, I need not, I can- 
not sav, what a sacrifice of individual feel- 
ing I make to a sense of public duty. 

WITH grateful acknowledgment and un- 
feigned thanks for the personal respect, and 
evidences of condolence, expressed by Con- 
gress and yourself, I remain very resped- 
fully, sir, your most obedient and humble 



The Presid-fiU of the United State*. 





(General d^rorge ^Hal|)mgtott, 


VV HEN a man of so much importance, 
and an objecl of such general estimation, as 
the illustrious character under consideration, 
is removed from the busy theatre of life, a 
more than ordinary curiosity is excited, to 
know in what manner he exercised his be- 
ing, and by v/hat degrees he rose to an eleva- 
tion so renowned and so glorious. 

INGTON, was born in Virginia, in the par- 
ish of V/ashington, in Westmoreland countyp 
on the 22d day of February, 1732 : his fath- 
er, Mr. Augustine Washington^ was the owner 
of an ample estate, comprehending a large 
plantation and a farm, in Virginia, and a gen- 
tleman of enviable endowments and much 
respedability. The ancestors of this valued 



man arrived in that part of America, from 
the county of York, in Great-Britain, in the 
year 1657, ^^^ established a settlement in 
King George's county. During the first 
movement of the revolutionary war, the late 
General Washington had three brothers 
and one sister living, viz, Samuel^ John^ and 
Charles^ each of v/hom had estates of conse- 
quence — the kdy was married to Colonel 
Fielding Lcxi'is, 

THE general's father married twice, and 
our political saviour was the first issue of 
the second marriage ; his education was con- 
dueled under the superintendence of his 
father, who had his boy trained up in those 
exercises and feats of adivity and hardihood, 
as steeled his young nerves and fitted him 
for the purposes of an enterprising life : by 
this judicious proceeding, he was rendered 
muscular and healthful, and, as the mind is 
greatly dependent on the body, his intellecl 
became sound, and his apprehension lively. 
His hours of study were guided by a private 
tutor, who infused that correcl taste for com- 
position, which he has so charmingly exem- 
plified in his correspondence and oliicial pa- 
pers ; and those sentiments oi morality ^which 

148 APPr.NDIX. 

made his philosophy amiable and his prac- 
tice noble. 

THE prominent course of his tuition in- 
volved the theory of the Latin language, the 
problems of Euclid, and the prosody of his 
vernacular tongue. His father died w^hert 
he was a boy, and he fell under the guardian- 
ship of his elder brother, Mr. Laivrence Wash- 
ingioji. — When admiral Verncfi was employ- 
ed in the reduction of Carthagena, this gen- 
tleman accompanied the expedition, and had 
the command of a company in the colonial 
troops ; at the termination of that exploit, 
he returned and married the daugrhter of the 
Hon. William Fairfax^ of Belltvoir. He took 
his lady to the family seat, which he civilly 
denominated Mount Vernon^ in remembrance 
and in honour of the gallant admiral, who 
had expressed a predilection for the talents 
and spirit of the young American. This 
gentleman was created adjutant general of 
the Virginia militia, and died soon after the 
appointment. The daughter of this gentle- 
man, and his second brother, being deceased. 
General "Washington succeeded to the fam- 
ily patrimony, and sat down as the legiti- 
mate lord of an exterxsive and rich do- 


WHEN no more than fifteen years of age, 
-he was enrolled as a midshipman in the Brit- 
ish service, but his destiny had ordered it 
otherwise ; his mother entered her protest 
against the proceeding, and the idea was 

BEFORE he was a complete adult, and 
while under twenty, he obtained the rank of 
major in a Virginian battalion, the original 
office of adjutant general, as filled by his de- 
ceased brother, being trisected in authority 
and given to three several districts, as the 
province had increased in population equal to 
a justification of the division. 

SHORTLY after this military induction, 
an event happened, which, in its progress, 
called into action those eminent pov.-ers for 
negotiation and politic address, which have 
been so conspicuously exerted since, in the 
defence of his country's immunities, and the 
arrangement of her full and equal laws. 

IN 1753 ^^^ French, from the Canadas, 
suborned some Indian tribes to assibt them 
in plundering tlic western frontiers, in the 
neighbourhood of the AUegliany and Ohio 
rivers. The imperial country hearing of tlic 


aggressioiijinstriicred the governor and coun- 
cil of the Virginia province to re'pel the in- 
vasion by force : tliey, notwithstanding, be- 
lieved it as the more prudent step to attempt 
an explanation with the French and Indians, 
and thereby prevent the effusion of human 
blood. It was resolved, on mature delibera- 
tion, to depute Major Washington on this 
arduous and critical embassy. He conveyed 
a letter to the commander in chief of the en- 
emy's forces, explanatory of the violation, 
and made some friendly overtures to the 
six nations and their allies, to induce them 
to become attached to the British interest : 
he began his journey in the earlier part of 
the winter, accompanied by a few persons, 
and after traversing immense forests and 
pathless deserts, he happily arrived at the 
quarters of Monsieur de St. Pierre, to whom 
he communicated the nature and letter of 
his mission, and the interview was conduc- 
ed on his part with so much precaution, 
temper, and firmness, that it was ultimately 
successful. His m.ana2:ement of the Indians 
w^as not less propitious. — For this moment- 
cus service,he received the warm approval of 
lieutenant governor Dinwiddle in particular. 



and his country in general. He kept a diary 
or journal during this novel progress, which 
has been since published to the world, and 
proved entertaining and instructive, but 
more especially to those who have travelled 
into those remote parts of the continent. It 
v/as in this publication that he first mani- 
fested that love of method, force of reason- 
ing, and constancy to a resolution compre- 
hensively founded, which have since so 
characterised him in arranging the elements 
of order, and establishing the liberties of his 

ALTHOUGH Major Washington had per- 
feifled the objed of his embassy, so far as a 
written stipulation could bind, it was soon 
discovered that the enemy was not faithful 
to his word and bond of honour, as the war- 
like movements on the western frontier 
plainly evinced. In this distressing time, an 
order arrived from Britain to embody the 
troops of the colonies for their common de- 
fence : the state of Virginia was the first in 
obedience to this command, and in the year 
1754, raised an appropriate sum of money 
and a regiment of 400 men, to assemble on 
the frontiers of their colony. Mr. Fry, a pro- 

l^t APPi-NDIX'. 

fcssor in the College of William and Mary^ 
had the command of this corps, and Major 
Washington, at the age of twenty three, 
was nominated Lieutenant Colonel. The 
commander dying before the regiment was 
perfected, his rank and power devolved on 
the snbjecl of this memoir. 

COLONEL WASHINGTON thus invested, re- 
doubled his diligence in exercising his men, 
fixing magazines, and opening roads : it was 
his hope to have established a military post 
at the junction of the Alleghany and Mo- 
nongahela rivers, a measure of precaution 
which he had w^armly recommicnded to the 
council the preceding year. To this impor- 
tant spot (now called Pittsburg) he direded 
his march in May, without waiting for rein- 
forcements, either regular or provincial, so 
great was his eagerness to fortify that sta^ 

IN his progress he encountered a consider- 
able party of French and Indians, at a place 
called Redstone : he instantly charged . and 
routed them, making prisoners and destroy- 
ing fifty, among the captives was Monsieur 
De La Force ^ and two other officers. Colonel 
Washington then understood the perils of 



his situation, as these gentlemen informed 
him that the French had looo regular troops 
on the Ohio and a numerous party of sava- 
ges ; and what was more imm.ediately dis- 
tressing, that they had pre-occupied the post 
at the confluence of the rivers, and had 
named it fort Du Shjesne, 

IN this dilemma, he took his stand at a 
spot called Great Meadows, to procure for- 
age, and erecled a stockade for his stores, 
which he called Fort Necessity, lie waited 
the arrival of succours from the nei2:hbour- 
ing colonies, but was only strengthened by 
Captain Mackayh regulars, which made his 
force, in the aggregate, but 400 efficient men. 
The enemy lay dormant until July, when he 
understood that a strong reconnoitring party 
w^as approaching rapidly : he was prompt in 
his decision on the aspect of danger ; he sal- 
lied out with his little army and defeated his 
foe ; but this vigorous effort for his security 
was ineffeclual, as shortly after, a large de- 
tachment of French and Indians, to the 
amount of 1500 men, under the command of 
the Sieur de Viiliers^ attacked him in his tem- 
porary fortification — the assailed made a 
firm resistance, and killed 200 of the enemy, 




but lost, ill killed or wounded, many of their 
jrallant comrades. This determined opposi- 
tion so discomfited the French leader, that a 
parley was offered on his part and accepted, 
and an honourable capitulation w^as the con- 
sequence. The diminutive garrison marched 
out, with the honours of war, and their com- 
mander at their head, with baggage and mil- 
itary stores: the provincial soldiers were 
plundered and massacreed, during their re- 
treat, by the savages ; after this discomfit- 
ure, the skeleton of the Virginian regiment 
returned to Alexandria, to re-fill their ranks 
and repose after their disasters. 

WHEN the British ambassador remon- 
strated at the court of Versailles, on the in- 
fradion of the articles of capitulation, it was 
perceived that the French officers in Ameri- 
ca had acled agreeable to their instrudions ; 
the real views of the christian king, in re- 
sped to the colonies in Am^erica, then under 
British subjugation, were now developed ; 
and after this disclosure, the French became 
more adive in their hostile preparations, 
which were pursued without remission 
through the winter of 1754, and the spring 

©^ 1755- 



THE government of Virginia did not re- 
main regardless of the machinations and ag- 
gressions of the French. They ere6led forts 
Cumberland and Loudon, and ordered a 
camp at Wills Creek, from which situation 
they could harrass their enemies on the O- 
hio. In the furtherance of these designs, 
Colonel Washington was highly useful, and 
his services were acknow^ledgcd in terms of 
respecl and approval. 

IT was at this period when the ill-fated 
General Braddock arrived in America from 
Britain : he landed at Alexandria, with two 
old regiments from Ireland, and to these 
were to be united the different corps in A- 
merica, including the independent and pro- 
vincial bodies ; at the head of this combined 
force he was to crush the bold and cruel in- 
vaders of our frontiers. On this occasion the 
the evils of etiquette were permitted to an- 
null the recommendations of virtue ; a royal 
deiinition of rank had prevailed, which ri- 
diculously signified, that no ofhcer who had 
not derived Iiis commission immediately from 
his majesty, could command one who had 
been blessed with that honour. When this 
distinftion was understood, Colonel Wash- 


■ ' • - — rr 

iNGTON resigned his commission, but he did 
not suffer his disgust, arising from the forms 
and fopperies ol: a court, to supercede the 
regards he bore towards his country : he 
entered the army as a volunteer, and conde- 
scended to serve as an extra aid de camp to 
General Braddock, The army marched by 
Wills Creek for fort Du Quesne, and in this 
route Colonel Washington's counsel would 
have proved the salvation of the army, had 
it been duly taken and followed ; as no per- 
son, in the colony, was so thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the advantages and disadvan- 
tages conne6ted with the various stations in 
this march, as himself ; but on this event, 
as in others, the presumption of arrogance 
involved the destruction of its ow^n agency. 
General Braddock disdained to be instructed 
by a provincial officer, and he perished in his 
folly : in the course of the march he met, 
unexpectedly and without adequate prepara- 
tion, a large body of the foe, when a bloody 
conflict instantly ensued, which ended in the 
defeat of Braddock' s army, which consisted 
of 2000 regulars and 800 provincials : the 
slaughter of the British troops was great, and 
their extermination would have occur- 
-red, had not the intrepid and discreet Wash- 



ri^GTON, aided by his colonial adherents, cov- 
ered their retreat, which they eflected in the 
utmost confusion and dismay ; when Col. 
Washington had conducted them safely 
over the ford of the Monongahela, and the 
enemy ceasing to pursue their career, he 
thought it expedient to consult with Col. 
Dunbar^ who was left in the rear with the se- 
cond division of the army and the baggage : 
in pursuance of this idea,he was constrained 
to travel all night, on horseback, through a 
gloomy and untrodden forest, and was so 
exhausted on his arrival, by such a variety 
of fatigue, that he was supported by pillows. 
It may not be unnecessary to remark that he 
was the only officer, who was mounted dur- 
ing the battle, that v/as not killed or wound- 
ed. The European accounts of this memo- 
rable and calamitous affair, were not unmix- 
ed with abundant praises on his skill, his 
perseverance and gallantry. 

SHORTLY after this overthrow, the ar^ 
rangement of rank, so injuriously unpleasant 
to the colonial officers,wa5 altered, and the 
government of Virginia, bestowed on Colo- 
nel Washington, the command of all the 
troops raised, and to be raiscd,in the colony : 


he maintained this commission with honour, 
until 1759, when the restoration ot tranquil- 
ity on the frontiers took place, and he re- 
signed his command : he was additionally in- 
duced to this resignation, by the personal 
Inconveniences of a pulmonary disease, the 
probable enfcebhng effccl: of a life of thought, 
hazard, toil and inconvenience. The officers 
and private soldiers, which formed the Vir- 
ginia line, would not permit their beloved 
commander to retire without following him 
to his retreat, with an unanimous testimonial 
of their veneration of his character, and their 
regret at his resolution : he received this to- 
ken of their unaffected regard, with manly 
tenderness, and even increased their love to- 
wards him, by proving himself so uniformly 
worthy of its fulness. 

HE had not receded long from the bustle 
and horrors of a campaign, and the cus- 
toms of a soldier's duty, before his health 
w^as happily increased : it was at this epoch 
that he married Mrs. Martha Custis, a young 
and beautiful widow, " with whom he had 
a fortune of twenty thousand pounds 
sterling: in her own rigrht, besides her dower 
in one of the principal estates in Virginia ;" 


on the consummation of this union, Colonel 
Washington imd his lady, equal in years, 
suavity, and virtue, settled at Mount Ver- 

IN this scene of domestic felicity, he com- 
menced planter and farmer, and managed 
his agricultural concerns so discreetly and 
prosperously, that he has been held forth as 
an example deserving universal imitation. — 
Colonel Washington was one of the great- 
est landholders in North America : his estate 
at Mount Vernon was computed, in 1787, 
to consist of nine thousand acres, under his 
own management and cultivation ; he had 
likewise various large tracts of land in other 
parts of the state ; his annual receipt from 
his estates, amounted, in 1776, to four thous- 
and pounds sterlings and it was then believed 
would have sold for upwards of one hundred 
and sixty thousand founds sterli?ig, which is 
equal to more than 666,000 dollars. What 
his revenue was recently we do not know, 
but their can be little presumption in suppos- 
ing that it was much increased, under his 
prudential guidance and pradlical economy. 


HE allotted a part of the Saturday, in 
each week^ to receive the reports of his over- 
seers, which were registered progressively, 
to enable him to compare the labour with the 
produce of each particular part ; and, it is 
affirmed, that this weekly retrcspecl, was 
duly considered by this great man, during 
the stormy m.ovemcnts of the revolutionary 
war, and his presidency of the United 
States. — He has raised, in one year, seven, 
thousand bushels of wheat, and ten thous- 
and bushels of Indian corn, on his Mount 
Vernon estate : in a succeeding year he raised- 
two hundred lambs, sowed twenty seven 
bushels of flax-seed, and planted seven hun- 
dred bushels of potatoes ; at the same time 
his domestics manufadured linen and wool- 
len cloth enough for his numerous house- 
hold, which amounted to nearly a thousand 
persons : with liini, regularity and industry 
w^as the order of each day, and the conse- 
quent refieclion made them all happy. 

TPiouGH agriculture was pursued by him 
with such undeviating attention, he used it 
rather as the means of his pleasure than the 
end of his wishes ; which concentrated in the 
labour to improve the well being of his fel- 


low citizens, and to efFecl this he desisted 
from planting tobacco, to employ himself in 
the introduction and fostering such articles 
of vegetation, as might ultimately tend to a 
national advantage. — The first passion of his 
heart Vv^as the love of his country, and the 
tone of that high and inspiriting impulse was 
never broken : it was equally visible and 
predominant in the senate and the field ; it 
was mingled in the energies of his occupa- 
tion, and it pervaded the vision in his 

THE excellence and usefulness of General 
Washington, was always apparent, and his 
seeming more brilliant and dignified at one 
period than another, did not arise from any 
alteration of his principle, but the splendor 
of the service. From the year 1759, to the 
year 1774, he was a member of assembly, a 
magistrate of the county in which he re- 
sided, and a judge of the court, and in each 
capacity he was as able, as assiduous, and as 
incorrupt, as in any of his more exalted offi- 
ces. He was elected a delegate to the first 
congress in 1774, and to that wRich associ- 
ated in the ensuing year. 

i62 APPi-.KDlX. 

ON the 15th of June, 1775, lie had the 
supreme honour to be unanimously appoint- 
ed, by this immortal assembly of sages and 
patriots, commander in chief of all the forces 
raised, or to be raised, for the resistance of 
oppression and the maintenance of their co- 
lonial privileges. He accepted the appoint- 
ment with gratitude and apprehension ; the 
manner with which he tinclured his zeal for 
the public good, witli doubts of his own per- 
sonal sufficiency, was illustrative of human 
greatness : the disinterested tenor of his re- 
ply to the president on his nomination, was 
equally endearing as his modesty, and should 
be held in eternal admiration. 

IT was a circumstance very fortunate- for 
the existence of human liberty, that this 
nomination, by the council of the states, 
should be unattended with the customary 
emotions of personal envy, and commonly 
approved by the people : he had become 
proverbial for his honour, m.oderation and 
bravery ,and was conspicuous for his caution : 
and w^ith these powerful recommendations in 
his behalf, he Vv^as not only invested with 
confidence, but followed with joy. 


GENERAL WASHINGTON arrived at the 
camp at Cambridge, on July 2d, 1726, and ^JJ^ 
took the command of the American army : 
he was saluted on his arrival with every mark 
of satisfaction ; the troops expressed their 
exultation on beholding their leader, who 
began the necessary work of organization 
and discipline ; without which, an army de- 
generates into a mob, and is rather an in- 
cum.brance than a buhvark. 

IT is not precisely within our province, 
nor is it in our capability to pursue him 
through the mazes of the different actions in 
which he was engaged, nor to detail those 
" hair breadth 'scapes" with which his prog- 
ress was chequered ; there vrere times when 
the destruction of his band of heroes seemed 
inevitable, and the most sanguine lover of 
his country began to despond — but the sin- 
gular penetration of General WASHi>fGT0N 
enabled him to elude the imminent dangers, 
and disconcert the operations of the 
ablest generals of Britain : yet, notwith- 
standing these instances of preservation, 
he felt much uneasiness and mortification 
from the smallness of his force, contend- 
ing against a host of veterans, pjrferl; in dis- 


cipline and high in spirit. Perhaps fe\^ 
troops have contended with a longer series 
of disasters, than those disciples of liberty, 
in their struggle to uphold the primary im- 
munities of man. 

TWO base and treacherous attempts were 
discovered, about this time ; one was direct- 
ed ascainst the life of General Washington, 
and the other against his reputation : Gov- 
ernor Tryon had suborned the then mayor of 
Newyork, to assist the royal forces on their 
arrival in that city, and General Washing- 
ton was to be assassinated : this detestable 
design was rendered abortive by apprehend- 
ing Thomas Hickey, one of General Washing- 
ton's life-guard men, who was engaged in 
the conspiracy, and had engaged others ; this 
false miscreant was tried by a court martial 
on the 28th of June, found guilty, and was 
executed at eleven o'clock the same day, 
amidst the curses of the American army. 
The other malignant proceeding originated 
with an officer of high rank, who was so 
mean as to envy the superiority of another, 
and so vindictive as to circulate calumny for 
his overthrow : but this endeavour was 
^oon frustrated, and the author became con- 


t-emptible : it should be noted that this was 
the only occasion, on which the ability and 
integrity of General Washington was ever 
questioned, but it proved as weak in its con- 
sequences, as it was \\dcked in contempla- 

FROM the first action which he command- 
ed in this dreadful contest, when he com- 
pelled the British troops to evacuate Boston, 
bv a victory unstained with blood, to the 
august termination of the struggle in 1781, 
he was always the same philosophic hero ; 
he was an uncommon man, fitted for un- 
common difficulties, and, happily for the in- 
terests of the new world, it was so ordered 
by providence, that his mighty trials, were 
but " squared to his proportionate strength,*' 
his intelligence corresponded with his intre- 
pidity, and he was graced with both Miner- 
qjas : the alacrity of his mind felt no decay 
from disappointment : the resources of his 
capacity were commensurate to the perils as 
they arose : he regarded the caprices of for- 
tune with steadiness, and knowing that his 
cause was just, he relied, v/ith firmness, on 
his dauntless followers and the will of heav- 

i66 .^rrKNDix. 

IN 1783 a [general peace was negotiated 
and concluded in Europe, and then the proud 
hour arrived, when this great man had fin- 
ished all the labours of his military life ; he 
entered Nev/ycrk in triumph, amidst the ac- 
clamations of a liberated people : he was not 
decorated with \.\\c fasces or insignia of a Ro- 
man warrior, nor did he drag the representa- 
tives of a plundered province at his chariot 
wheels, in bondage and in chains : his digni- 
ty and solacement were derived from a purer 
source ; he brought the assurance of manu- 
mission to a suffering v/orld, and bade them 
prepare a charter for the security of their 
rescued privileges. 

HE resigned his commission, as command- 
er in chief, to Congress, which he had used 
with such wonderful advantage to his coun- 
try, but without ostentation or any accom- 
panyment of vanity ; and returned, with 
gladness, to the bosom of his family at 
Mount Vernon. As he passed through the 
intermediate towns and villages, all ages and 
degrees poured forth, to welcome, with the 
tenderest congratulations, the. deliverer of 
his country : they offered up their artless 
supplications, to the throne of mercy, to bless 


and preserve their common benefactor, and 
those unadulterated tokens of regard must 
have made a deep and felicitous impression 
on a heart such as he possessed. 

REPEATED offcrs of compcnsation were 
now made him, by the various states, for his 
manifold services, but he declined them all, 
and even those which might only liquidate 
the additional expences he had incurred in 
the public cause : his enlarged mind felt su- 
perior to such considerations, he was satis- 
fied with having run a race of glory, and 
dre^v his richest rewards from his own sen- 
sations : his desires v/ere bounded bv hon- 
our ; he had all the self denial and m.agnan- 
imity so attributable to Scip'io^ but the point 
of his heroism had a more philanthropic di- 

FROM the peace of 1783 to 1787, he pass- 
ed his time in a rotation of civil and social 
duties, arranging and methodizing his do- 
mestic concerns \ m.aintaining an extensive' 
correspondence with eminent personages at 
home and abroad ; perusing works of sci- 
ence ; examining experiments in arts, and the 
amazing phenom.ena of nature, and rcceiv 


3ng the visits and homage of illustrious for- 
eieners and natives, who were incessantly 
crouding to Mount Vernon, to salute its be^ 
nignant owner. 

IN 1787 he was called to a seat in that 
convention, v/hich sat in Philadelphia, to 
assist in the stupendous and diiticult task of 
making a new constitution for the United 
States ; and of that venerable assemblage, 
that constellation of sages, he was chosen 
president : when the several articles of this 
inestimable obligation were digested and mn- 
tured, it was issued for the observance of hb. 
happy countrymen, and the admiration of 
the universe : its provisions had been duly 
weighed and ameliorated, by his inquisitive 
and comprehensive understanding, and it re- 
ceived a prompt currency under the influ- 
ence of his name. 

IT is a simple, beautiful stru<5bire, made 
up with skill from liberal grants and con- 
cessions, and as perfect in its component 
parts as such an instrument of legation can 
be, which professes to combine social securi- 
ty with individual liberty : we do not insist 
so unequivocally upon the strength of this 


compad, as that is materially dependent up- 
on the wisdom and morality of those it is 
calculated to govern : man, as a species, is 
more liable to the impressions of delusion 
than of truth; and, notwithstanding he is ra- 
tional, must be guarded and limited in his 
agency, lest the indulgence of his own inor- 
dinate desires, should de detrimental to the 
happiness of all. 

WERE it possible to persuade mankind, 
what is their chief interest here to know, 
that to assist the good endeavours, and to 
sympathize with the weaknesses and necessi- 
ties of each other, yields an enjoyment far 
superior to any of a mere selfish nature ; there 
would be little occasion, in a m.oral view, to 
threaten the infliction either of temporal or 
eternal punishm.ent. Indeed it seems almost 
sufficiently just, if there be any totally desti- 
tute of humanity, that such, from their dul- 
ness or malignity, are deprived of the most 
exquisite and exalted felicity. 

ON the 3cth of April, 1789, he was in- 
vested as president of the United States, in 
Newyork, and his investiture was hailed and 
accompanied by the unfeigned rapture of his 


fellow citizens. He then entered upon one 
of tlic most solemn offices that man can pos- 
sibly assume : to administer a government of 
novel elements : to organize the high repub- 
lican departments of state, and give to each 
its due nerve, ramification, and civic depen- 
dencies : to make the effect as parallel as 
possible with popular expectation, yet to 
ward against any irrational infringement so 
far, as that the whole might be ultimately 
prai^icable and durable : but the national 
confidence attended his exertions, and that 
confidence was well reposed, as he began his 
supreme delegation with principles of virtue. 
The pleasures of virtue, are, first, the imme- 
diate satisfaction we enjoy in contributing to 

the advantage of others, virtue in this case 
being its own best reward ; not that it be- 
stows because it receives, but that it receives 
because it is disposed to bestow, as a lumin- 
ous body is yet more enlightened by the re- 
flection of its own splendour, 

TO declare that he administered the obli- 
gations of his great office with propriety, 
would be but a feeble acknowledgment : he 
stepped forward with m.odest hesitation, 
in obedience to the public voice, to give or- 


der, and harmony, and force, to the chaotic 
and untried principles of a new scheme of 
rule, and he accompUshed all that a human 
being could ; he defined the extent of the 
common charter of his nation ; and, in the 
hazardous performance of the contract, he 
laid the foundation of such a pure and Hberal 
system of ethical policy, as no confederation 
of people had heretofore known ; he knew 
what portion of liberty perturbed man could 
bear, and he was solicitous that he should 
have as much as he was fitted to enjoy. 

IN the decline of the same year, in whicli 
he had consented to bear the incumbent 
weight of the young republic, he visited the 
eastern states, and v^as saluted by all classes 
of the inhabitants, with fervor, love, and du- 
ty. The congratulations he experienced, 
were such as monarchs might envy : the re- 
■specl he met was of that unsophisticated na- 
ture, in which the soul makes its offering 
with the body — every municipal and religi- 
ous community addressed liim on his ar- 
rival; and, in his answers to tlicse affectionate 
memorials of public esteem, he had the wis- 
dom to disseminate such documents, as 
miglit operate to an obedience ot the laws, 


and to uphold morality ; knowing, that we 
can have no pradice of goodness, or calm- 
ness of mind, but what is connected with 
moral beauty. 

WHEN the presidential term had expired, 
he indicated a resolution to return once 
more to the shades of domestic retirement, 
as the infirmities of age had rendered him 
less vigorous j he had even pondered upon 
Iiis farewel address, and was preparing for a 
final secession from the affairs of state, when 
his apprehensive countrymen, united to im- 
plore him to desist from such an abandon- 
ment of office : their interposition super- 
ceded his own will, and he was indu<5i:ed 
in the chief magistracy, a second time, to the 
manifest satisfadion of all honest men in 
America ! 

TPiE good sense and probity of a people, 
was never more conspicuous, than in this 
cautious proceeding ; as it is not altogether 
problematical, but the very existence of the 
commonwealth depended upon this timely 
adoption : the moral and political world 
were then trembling with the effed of a con- 
vulsion, which threatened, in its progress. 



to overthrow the institutes of subordination, 
?.nd rebarbarize mankind : and the imposing 
speciousness of the innovation constituted 
its evil — an extraordinary and vast revolu- 
tion took place in France, at once delight- 
ing, am.azing, and affrighting the universe : 
this was an event of such portentous magni- 
tude and dreadful splendour, as made the 
members of the old establishments shud- 
der, lest the finger of reform should expose 
their hideousness, and crumble the feudal 
fabrics of antiquity into dust ; as they had 
become too rotten to be touched, even by 
the talisman of virtue. They saw the regal 
diadem abused, and the monastic authorities 
totter y the monk and the courtier cashiered, 
and all the gothic privileges of pride vanish 
and dissolve in air : the patrician began to 
doubt his preeminence, and slavery hurled 
the chain at his oppressor : a new code of 
Mip-shod morals was obtruded upon creduli- 
ty, and the young calendar of the hour took 
the vizor from the seasons : the solemnity 
of the altar was invaded by a civic dance, and 
the laws of matrimony were obliterated by 
the voluptuaries of Epicurus : tlicy encumbered 
a figure with tav/dry habiliments that they 
called reason, and made her violate the 


law and the prophets : this limitless en-' 
franchisement of the passions, made the 
thoughtless frantic, and the thinking weep : 
as the causes which produced tliis issue were 
lost in time, so the consequences of its in- 
fluence were beyond the reach of calcula- 
tion : when the first sensations of monarch- 
ical consternation had subsided, an expanded 
and decided system of counteraction was 
put in force, and a war commenced,, with a 
peculiar feature of horror ; not for the re- 
covery of a province, or to assert the digni- 
ty of an insulted empire, but for the over* 
throw of prejudice and the extermination of 

THE progress of these commotions, had 
an obvious tendency to agitate the people of 
the united States, many of whom were 
transported with zeal, at the supposed liber- 
ation of so many millions of their fellow 
creatures : liberty feasts were held in the 
large towns,and such inflammatory measures 
pursued as v^ere inconsistent with the pacific 
^iews of the government : many insiduous 
srts were used to involve the country in a 
war with GreatEritain ; and the French fac- 
tion, directing the current of the lunacy. 


were incessant in their intrigues, M'hen Gen- 
eral Washington published his declaration 
of neutralityjand saved the nation. 

THIS 3.8: of saKation was the result of 
mature thought ; the crisis, in which he re- 
solved on the proclamation, was ureo-nant 
with infinite calamitv ; he risked the dura- 
bility of his hard and well earned reputation, 
by thus firmly opposing the indiscreet spirit 
of the time, but he saw the direct relation of 
the folly, and its ultimate mischief : both 
houses of Congress ratified the deed, and he 
pursued his exalted funclions with stability, 
circumspection, delicacy, and honour. His 
conduct, during this perilous conjuncture, 
was, perhaps, the greatest proof of his sagaci- 
ty and magnanimity, that occurred in the 
history of his brilliant life : the love he bore 
his country subdued all minor considera- 
tioni ; he had the greatness to be just and 
kind towards those, who seemed eager to be 
destroyed in the gratification of an indigest- 
ed desire : by this determined step he paral- 
ized the arm of sedition, but it had the una- 
voidable effect of partially jarring the chords 
of public harmony : yet the bond of amity 
between the president and the people wa*; 



unsullied : the inquietude was diminished, 
in proportion as the measure was under- 
stood, and although dissension ever did, and 
ever wiU, happen in the best regulated gov- 
ernments, the prevailing part of a nation con- 
stantly veer towards the points of recipro- 
cal justice. 

Ar; the discontents, arising from this great 
eftbrt of policy, have not wholly subsided, 
it may not be improper to suppose 
the motives which a61:uated the supreme 
magistrate ; he saw that the conservation of 
the civil order was endangered by this illegit- 
imate novelty, which undermined the base 
of mutual protection and personal comfort ; 
he knew that the national character of his 
countrymen was forming, and he was un- 
willing that any of their habitudes should 
be derived from Gallic deformity : he gath- 
ered but little felicity from the Decades 
and misbegotten mummeries of the French 
Directory, being assured that they were in- 
roads incompatible with the dignity and per- 
manent crood of human nature : their aboli- 


tion of the sabbath, with its annexed piety 
and consolation, and corre6tive ordinances, 
was not, with him, an event of consummate 



■ 1 ^»~rT'i' ■'■•■i^j'*! ■ mt — i^iJB— ■ ill iT>»<ii ■■ 

glory : he beiie%'cd and felt that an observ- 
ance of its bainiy duties allured us to resig- 
nation in the sweetest way, and that our de- 
lights were even unauthorized without grat- 
itude — to those dark spirits, whose faith is 
bounded by their senses, we shall commit 
the illustration of the advantages of an eter- 
nal oblivion. 

THE embarrassments arising from this 
evil, were not all the inconveniences he had 
to contend with, at this era ; an Indian vrar 
broke forth, which, in its first effects, caused 
some consternation, but, by the adroitness, 
skill, and intrepidity of General Wayne, soon 
terminated in favour of his arms : a ratifica- 
tion of peace was then concluded between the 
United States and the savages, and the presi- 
dent, in his comprehensive administration, 
had the beneficence to make the comfort of 
a prostrate foe, a leading consideration. 

IN the month of September, 1796, the 
time had revolved when a new eleclion was 
to occur, of an appropriate person to fill the 
presidential seat : and while the public hope 
was indulged, that General Washington 
would accept it, for a third time ; he signi- 



fled liis unalterable rcbolulion of receding 
from the toils of state, in an afleflionatc and 
wise ADDRtss to the nation ; the letter and 
spirit of which, we fervently pray, may be 
understood and practised, from this period^ 
to ages yet unborn. 

HE resigned the mantle of authority with 
confidence to his successor, after dedicating 
forty-five years of his resplendent life, to the 
advantage of his country : it cannot sur- 
prise, that his renunciation of power should 
create dejection in his fellow citizens, whose 
impulse to adion was virtue, and whose 
pursuit was justice : he consented to assume 
power for the benefit of mankind, and not 
for his own gratification : power is no esti- 
mable quality by itself ; it is the power of 
doing good alone, that is desirable to the 

HIS conduct, in his executive capacity, 
was dignified,yet condescending j* and mer- 

* ON General W» shington's birthday, which was a few 
days ago, the city of Philadelphia was unusually gay ; every per- 
son of consequence in it, Quakers alone excepted, made it a point 
to visit the General on this day. As early as eleven o'clock in 
the morning he was prepared to receive them, and the audience 
lasted till three in the afternoon. The society of the Cincinnati. 



ciful, yet resolute : he felt for the infirmi- 
ties of humanity, and took an especial pre- 
caution, that while he guarded against the 
establishment or continuance of an evil, to 
make adequate allowance for the weaknesses 
of our nature : he knew that the benign pur- 

the clergy, the officers of the militia, and several others who 
formed a distindl body of citizens came by themselves separately. 
The foreign ministers attended in their richest dresses ana most 
splendid equipages. Two large parlours were open for the recep- 
tion of the gentlemen, the windows of one of which towards the 
street were crowded with speilators on the outside. The side- 
board was furnished with cake and wines, whereof the visitors 
partook. I never observed so much cheerfulness before in the 
countenance of General Washington ; ^ut it was impossible for 
him to remam insensible to the attention and the compliments 
paid to him en this occasion. 

THE ladies o^" the city, equally attentive, paid their respedls 
to Mrs. Washington, who received them in the drawing room up 
stairs. After having visited the General most of the gentlemen 
also waited upon er. A public ball ?nd supper terminated the 
rejoicings of the day. Not one town of any importance was there 
in the whole union, where some meeting did not take place in 
honour of this day. 

GENERAL Washington gives no public dinners or other en- 
tertainments, except to those who are ia diplomatic capacities, and 
to a few families on terms of intimacy witli Mrs. Washington. 
Straagers, with whom he wishes to have some conversation about 
agriculture or any such subje<fl are sometimes invited to tea. 
This, by many, is attributed to his savinj^ disposition; but it is 
more just to ascribe it to his prudence and foresight for as the 
salary of the president is very small, and totally madtquate by 
itself to support an expensive sty e of life, were he to give nume- 
rous and splendid entertainments, the same might possibly be ex- 
pected from subsequent p csidents, who, it their private fortunes 
were not considerable, would be unable to live in the same style, 
and might be exposed to many ill-nntured observations, from thr 
relinquishment of what the people had been accustomed to; it is 
most likely also that General Washington has been aftuatcd by 
these motives, because in his private capacity at Mount Vernon 
every stranger meets with a hospitable reception from him. 

Welds' Travih- 


poses of every punishment of civil institu- 
tion, slioukl be rendered as obvious as possi- 
ble, lest cruelty be inculcated by example. 

FROM March, 1797, to July, 1798, he re- 
mained tranquilly embosomed at Mount Ver- 
non, in the performance of the amiable but 
rcstrieled duties of private life ; personify- 
ing, in his own character, what that citizen 
ought to be, who had the happy destination 
oflivino: under the most free and clement 
government on earth : while he w^as thus 
peacefully and radiantly declining to the 
tomb, he was again supplicated to assist his 
country ; she had been insulted and aggriev- 
ed : he felt implicated, as an American, in 
the national honour, and accepted the con- 
dition of the prayer. — The manifestation of 
this patriotic acceptance, was the last official 
action of this venerable man. 

ON the 14th of December, 1799, he de- 
parted from this life, at his seat, at Mount 
Vernon, in the sixty-eighth year of his age ; 
after having reaped an harvest of glory, 
commensurate with all that can be effected 
by mortal greatness. 


HE was as much a proficient in the arts of 
persuasion as any, for his influence on hi^: 
countrymen was unlimited ; and this influ- 
ence was among the greatest triumphs of 
virtue. The institutions of ^linctiliariy or 
the orations of Thucydides or Salliist^ exhibit 
no rule of eloquence more charming, or more 
perfecc than what he providentially exem- 
plified, when he exhorted a part of the con- 
tinental army, on the 15th of Marcli, 
1783, to resist the diabolical exertions of 
some seditious emissaries, who were labour- 
ing to estrange them from the common 
good : no system of science could have fur- 
nished an appeal more effectual, nor could 
any man have so restrained the passions of 
an armed multitude, but him, whose wisdom, 
bravery, and integrity were concomitant 
with each other. 

THE disinterestedness of his mind was as 
alluring as it v/as noble,* and he used every 

*Item. Whereas by a law of the Commonwealth of Virginia, en- 
abled in the year 1785, the legislature thereof was plc.-'.sccl (as ati 
evidence of its approbation of the services I had rendered the pub- 
lic, during the Revolution, and partly, I believe, in confidcration 
of my having suggested the vast advantages which the community 
would derive from the extension of its inland navigation under 
legislative patronage) to present mc with one hundred shares, of 
one hundred doilars each, in the incorporated company, cstab- 

82 .\l»rhNDl>t. 

opportunity to promote the esiablishments 
for learning : he acled from high and be- 
nevolent motives, and he required no dear- 
er recompence than what his feelings could 

lishcd for the purpose of extending the navigation of jamcs River, 
from tide water to the mountains ; — and also with fifty shares of 
one hundred pounds sterling each, in the corporation of another 
company likewise established for the similar purpose of opening 
the navigation of the river Potomack, from tide water to Fort 
Cumberland; the acceptance of which, although the ofler was 
highly honoraole and gratful to my feelings, was refused, as in* 
consistent with a principle uhich I had adopted, and had never 
departed from -viz — not to receive pecuniary compensation fot 
any services I could render my country in its arduous struggle with 
Great Britain for its lights ; and because I had evaded similar 
propositions from other states in the union. Adding to this refu- 
sal, however, an intimation that, if it should be the pleasure of the 
legislature to permit mc to appropriate the said shares to public 
uses, I would receive them on those terms with e.ut sensibility ; 
and this it having consented to, in flattering terms, as will appear 
by a subsequent law and sundry resolutions, in the most ample 
and honorable manner — I proceed after this recital, for the more 
correct understanding of the case, to declare — that as it has al- 
ways been a source of serious regret with me, to see the youth of 
these United States sent to foreign countries for the purpose of 
education, often before their minJs were formed, or they had im- 
bibed any adequate ideas of the happiness of their own ; conrra<5t- 
ing too frequently, not only habits of diflipation and extravagance, 
but principles unfriendly to republican government, and to the 
true and genuine liberties of mankind ; which, thereafter are 
rarely overcome. — For these reasons, it has been my ardent wish, 
to see a plan devised on a liberal scale , which would have a ten- 
dency to spread systematic ideas through all parts of this rising 
empire, thereby to do <x\vay local attachments and state prejudi- 
ces, as far as the nature of things would, or indeed ought to ad- 
mit, from our national councils. — Looking anxiously forward to 
the accomplishment of so desirable an objedl: as this is, (in my 
estimation) my mind has not been able to contemplate any plan 
more likely to effect the measure, than the establishment of a U- 
NlVERSri'Y in a central part cf the United States, to which the 
youths of fortune and talents, from all parts thereof, might be sent 
for the completion of their education in all the branches of polite 
hterature ; in arts and sciences, in acquiring knowledge in the 


aiFord ; yet what can be more pleasing than 
self-applause, when it is coniirmed by the 
approbation of the good ? the ambitious 
place their chief happiness in fame, the ava- 
ricious in fortune, equally blind to the bless- 
ings that should follov/. To employ every 
gentle method, therefore, to extend the prin- 
ciple of human sympathy : to im.provc our 
finer feelings, and give to the soul a more 

principles of politics and gcod govern.-nent, and (as a matter of 
infinite importance in my judgment) by associating with each o- 
ther, and forming riend-hips in juvenile years, be enabled to free 
themselves, in a proper degree from those local prejudice? and 
habitual jealousies, which hare juft been mentioned ; and which, 
when carried to eicess, are never-failing sources ^f disquietude to 
the public mind, and pregnant of mischievous conseqaeuccs to 
this country •, under these impressions, so fully dilated. 

Item Igive and bequeath in perpetuity the fifty shares whicii 
I hold in the Potomack company (under the aforesaid acts of the 
legislature of Virginia) towards the endowment of a UNIVERSI- 
TY, to be established within the limits of the district of Colum- 
bia, under the auspices of the general government, if that gcvern- 
ment should incline to extend a loftcring hand towards it ; and 
until such seminary is established, and the funds arising on these 
shares shall be required for its support my further will and de- 
sire is, that the profit accruing therefrom shall, whenever the div- 
idends are made, be laid out in purcha-^ing slock in the bank of 
Columbia, or some other bank, at the discretion of my executors, 
or by the Treasu-er of the United Statts for the time being, under 
the diredtion of Congress — pro^'idcd that honorable body should 
patronize the measure ; and the dividends proceeding from the 
purchase of such stock, is to be vested in more stock, and so on, 
until a sum, adequate to the accomplishr-^ctit of the object, is ob- 
tained ; of which I have not the smallest doubt, before many 
years pass away, even if no aid or encouragement is given by the 
legislative authority, or from anv other source. 

Item. The hundred sliares which I hoJd m th< James River 
company, I have given, and now confirm in perpetuity, to and 
for the use and benefit o liberty hall academy, in the county of 
Rockbridge, in ihc ^.ommonwealth of Virginia. 

(Extracts from ;VASHi:<GrOX\ WiU.) 


lenclci lv)uch of all that is endearing to hu- 
manity, by exercising it in the speculation 
and praclicc of the virtues, is the most 
godlike occupation, and the great purpose 
of n\oral precept and sound philosophy. 

GHXERAi. Washington was in his per- 
son about six feet in height, his eyes were 
gray, but full of animation : his visage Vv^as. 
serene, and the temper of his thoughtful 
mind did not seem disposed to the frequent 
indulgence of mirth ; his limbs wxre well 
proportioned and muscular, and his deport- 
ment carried an air of majesty and solemnity 
in it, that was altogether awful to folly : 
though no mian did more for the interests of 
human nature in general, yet few men have 
unbosomiccl themselves with more circum- 
spection than he did, to any particular indi- 
vidual ; but this habit of reserve has been 
the charadfcristic of the wisest persons that 
ever lived, when possessed of similar author- 
ity — it has been asserted that he was never 
seen to smile, during the progress of the 
revolutionarv war : in the more unrestrained 
moments of private intercourse, he expressed 
himself with perspicuity and diffidence, but 


seldom used more words than were necessa- 
ry for the elucidation of his opinion : the 
lineaments of his face implied that he was 
an older man than he really was ; but the 
weight of care, that must necessarily have 
pressed upon the refleclion of a man,engaged 
in such a continuity of vast enterprize and 
deep responsibility, could not fail to ante- 
date in some degree, the works of time. 

THE graces of General Washington's 
person, were not unfrequently instrumental 
in the promotion of his views ; the advan- 
tages resulting from natural grace, in pol- 
ished and even savage life, are wonderfully 
conviclive ; and this effecb will not be amaz- 
ing, when it is known, that the most pene- 
trating analyzers of man, and his attributes, 
have determined that all action is graceful, 
in proportion as the impulses are innocent : 
nothino: that is vicious or abominable can be 
charming : nor does it breathe or exist in 
any emotions arising from vanity or folly : 
grace is the sublimity of beauty : it is a 
quality analagous to the most exquisite ten- 
derness of affection ; that modest, yet gay 
illustration of action, which accompanies 


1 86 API'LKDl^':. 

pure love : ^gracefulness is an expression of 
clignilied pleasure ; but that high order of 
pleasure is not ease, it is something more. 

AS a (li(la6lic writer, he can scarcely be 
esteemed too much ; his sentiments have 
a force and fascination to restore reason, invig- 
orate patriotism, and awaken piety : his 
public letters and documents should be en- 
graved upon the tablet of the nation, as ex- 
amples of profound sagacity, genuine integ- 
rity, and unafFeded humility : they should 
be eternally regarded, in a political interpre- 
tation, as " eyes to the blind" : his simplici- 
ty of style proves him to have been guided 
by a fine taste ; when a writer is verbose or 
glittering, his argument is weakened, and 
none but the unwise can admire him. 

IT was the peculiar honour of General 
Washington, not only to deserve, but to 
enjoy the approbation of all men of probity 
in either hemisphere ; those persons who 
had been his opponents in Britain, from an 
attachment to their sovereign and the pre- 
vailing councils of the hour, became his 
friends at the conclusion of a peace, from 



contemplating the moderation of his deport- 
ment, and the moral energies of his mind ; 
and some of the more distinofuished, consid- 
cred it as a reflected merit, to be in the liab- 
its of correspondence and the interchange of 
civiUties,* with such an embellished and ad- 
mirable personage. 

HE had the urbanity of a gentleman, 
without the littlenesses of pride ; and in the 
very plenitude of his authority, would 
sheathe a denial so kindly, that the sting of 
disappointment was absorbed in the beauty 
of the declaration : he embraced the delega- 
tion to rule, as a great man should ; not to 
indulge the luxury of the senses, or the in- 

* Itcm^ To the Earlof Buchan I recommit "the Box made 
of the oak tliat sheltered the great Sir Wll'.iam Wallace, after the 
battle of Falkirk" — presented to me by his lordship, in terms too 
flattering for me to repeat, with a request " to pass it, on the event 
of my decease, to the man in my country, who should appear to 
merit it best, upon the same conditions that have induced him to 
send it to me." Whether easy or not, to selevSl ^Ai- ?wj« who might 
romport with hi* lordship's opinion in this respedl, is not for ire 
to sav ; but conceiving that no disposition of this valuable curi- 
osity can be more ehgible than the reconnnitmcnt of it to his 
own cabinet, agreeably to the original design of the Goldsm.iths* 
company of Edinburgh, who presented it to him, and, at nis re- 
quest, consented that it should be transferred to me — I do give 
and bequeath the same to his lordship ; and, in cast; of his de- 
cease, to his heir, with my grateful thanks for the distinguished 
honour of presenting it to me, and more especially for the favour- 
able sentiments with which he accompanied it. 

( A/ 'ash tngt on 't PVUL ) 

1 88 APPENDIX". 

satiate aims of ambition, but for the blessed 
purpose of disseminating love and protec- 
tion to all : he stood as a preeminent sup- 
porter in society ; like d Tuscan column, 
with sober magnificence ; plain, strong, at- 
tractive and erecl : with Atlantean proper- 
ties, equal to more than the weight he had 
sustained : at once the vital principle and 
the ornament of that constitution he had 
sanctioned, and his fame will be co-eternal 
with the existence of freedom, 

WE have never contemplated the charac- 
ter of a magistrate more inflexible to wrong, 
nor of a man so active and so spotless, in 
any record, either antient or modern : he 
did more for imitation, and less for repen- 
tance, than any contemporary : had he de- 
rived his ideas of legislation and forbearance 
from the statutes of the golden age, he 
could not have done more t o enforce innocency 
and mutual truth ; and he confessedly lived 
to make mankind better, if it is in the vir- 
tue of an individual to corred our frailty. 

HAVING followed this august statesman 
to the sepulchre, it now devolves upon the 
grateful and the provident of his country- 

At>PEMDlX. 1S9 

mtn, to hang it round with symbols of re- 
crard,and inscribe it with the texts of his pol- 
icy : let them inform a future age, that he 
shunned no public question, nor omitted 
any duty ; in the cherishing hope, that other 
men may copy the impressive example : and 
the Insinuation of hope makes our delusion 
our joy ; but, in simplicity, yet force, of 
language : in clearness of understanding 
and depth of judgment : in his disdain ot 
any commutation with falshood : in his 
contempt of trivial expedients, and his abili- 
ty to make that spirit governing : in his 
appropriation of dired remedies for national 
evils, and in his majesty of character alto- 
gether, we have seriously to apprehend that 
he will be never equalled ; he had all the 
decision of Cato, without his coarseness — he 
had raised himself, by progressive excellence, 
above the tooth of envy, and the despera- 
tion of malice : and was not assailable by 
any mortal hand : 

Nee Jovis ira, nee igaes, 

Nee poterit ferrum, nee edax abolerc vctuitas. 

OvjD, M::tam. lib. 15. 

HE is now removed from terrestrial vi- 
cissitudes and the incorrigibility of tolly for- 
ever ; and is sainted in heaven, if it is in 

• 19^ APPr.NDix. 

the piety of a people to caiionize'^their bene- 
fiiclor : he was :i rare luminary, as mild as 
he \v;i^ cdulgent:, and, we trust, that the in- 
liuence of his bright example will be coeval 
with our nation : he approached as nearly 
to the divine essence, as any thing human 
can. Let those (if such there are) who,from 
depravity of inteliecl:, or imbecility of mind, 
may think of General Washington with ir- 
rc^Trence5 refled: maturely upon what Ameri- 
ca might have been, had not such a preserver 
been among us. When the varied beauties of 
legislation lay before him, he recommended 
those articles for congressional adoption, 
which were most analogous to our habits, 
and best suited for our prosperity : liberty 
is less endangered here, than in any other 
country, as there is more general intelligence 
in the community : those overheated zeal- 
ots, who may believe that he did not do 
enough, are but imperfectly acquainted with 
the assimilation of principle and practice : 
v/c can fondly transfer a theory from our 
lancy to our expectation, that would be 
cpliemeral in execution : the dodrines 
which are fulminated by enthusiasm, must 
be tried by experience and mellowed by wis» 


dom, before the statute can be properly ope- 
rative : those laws sustain public virtue the 
longest, which are reconcileable to modera- 
tion and the floatino: usaQ:es of civil life : 
this is not an epoch of romance, and. all 
Utopian follies should be exploded : we 
may demand much for common comfort, 
but we must yield something to insure its 


•'IT was oriwinallv iritcn<lc(l, bv the compilers ot t!,is woi i, VJ 
have omitted tlic celebrated anonymous letter, written by aw 
nlViccr of the American army, encamped near New Windsor, in 
Marcli, 178.} ; — but they have been induced to insert it as a 
necessary preface to the inimitable answer of the commander 
in chief; who, it has been suggested by some friends of high 
political reputation, had never, on any occasion, discovered a 
superior promptitude of talent, and dexterity of address, thail 
in suppressing the deep laid mischief of this ingenious incendi- 
ary, whose insidious eloquence had almost inflamed to revolt 
the then untainted purity of American valour. 

[it may be proper before we give tliis artful letter, to state 
further, that a memorial was presented to Congress, in Dec. 
178^, in behalf of the army, by three commissioners, consisting 
of Maj. Gen. IvrDou^all, and two field ofUcers, in which their 
wishes were thus expressed : " i. present pay. — 2. a settlement 
of the arrearages of pay, and security for what is due. — 3. a 
commutation of the half pay allowed by difTcrent resolutions 
of Congress for sn equivalent in gross — 4. a settlement of the 
account of defjciences of rations and compensations. — 5. a set- 
ilement of the accounts of dcficienccs of cloathing and com- 
pensation." In April following, the army was informed, by 
their Commissioners, that Congress had " decided on nothing 
of moment for them." Upon this, a meeting of the generaJ 
and field officers was called, at the public building, for the ex- 
press purpose of considering " what further measures (if any) 
should be adopted to obtain redress." This anonymous sum- 
mons was accompanied with the letter in question,] 



A FELLOW soldier, whose interest 
and afFedions bind him strongly to you, 
whose past sufferings has been as great, and 


U'hose future fortunes may be as desperate 
as yours — would beg leave to address you. 

AGE has its claims, and rank is not with- 
out its pretensions to advise, but though 
unsupported by both, he flatters himself, 
that the plain language of sincerity and ex- 
perience, will neither be unheard nor unre- 

LIKE many of you, he loved private life, 
and left it with rcsrret. He left it, deter min- 

o - 

ed to retire from the field, with the necessi- 
ty that called him to it, and not till then — 

not till the enemies of his country, the slaves 
of power, a^id the hirelings of injustice, 
were compelled to abandon their schemes, 
and acknowledge America as terrible in arms 
as she had been humble in remonstrance. 
With this object in view, he has long shared 
in your toils, and mingled in your dangers. 
He has felt the cold hand of poverty with- 
out a murmur, and has seen the erowins: in- 
solence of wealth without a sigh. — But, too 
much under the direction of his wishes, and 
sometimes weak enough to take desire for 
opinion, he has till lately, very lately, be- 
lieved in the justice of his country. He 

hoped that as the clouds of adversity scat- 

A a 

194 APPf.NDJX. 

tercel, and as the sunshine of peace and bet- 
ter fortune broke in upon us, the coldness 
and severity of government would relax, 
and that, more than justice, that gratitude, 
would blaze forth upon those hands, which 
had upheld her in the darkest stages of her 
passage, from impending servitude to ac- 
knowledged independence. But faith has 
its limits as well as temper, and there are 
points beyond which neither can be stretch- 
ed, without sinking into cowardice,or plung- 
ing into credulity. This, my friends, I con- 
ceive to be your situation. Hurried to the 
very verge of both, another step would ruin 
you forever. To be tame and unprovoked 
when injuries press hard upon you, is more 
than weakness ; but to look up for kinder 
usage, without one manly effort of your 
own, would fix your character, and shew 
the world how richly you deserve those 
chains you broke. To guard against this 
evil, let us take a view of the ground upon 
which we now stand, and thence carry our 
thoughts forw^ard, for a moment, into the 
unexplored field of expedient. 

AFTER a pursuit of seven years, the ob- 
ject for which you set out is at length 



brought within your reach. Yes, my friends, 
that sufFerinor courao;c of yours, was a6live 
once ; it has conducted the United States of 
America through a doubtful and bloody war. 
It has placed her in the chair of independen- 
cy, and peace returns again to bless — whom? 
A country courting your return to private 
life, with tears of gratitude, and smiles of 
admiration. Longing to divide with you 
that independency which your gallantry has 
given, and those riches which your wounds 
have preserved ? is this the case ? or is it 
rather, a country that tramples upon your 
rights, disdains your cries, and insults your 
distresses ? have you not, more than once, 
suo^gested your wishes, and made known 
your wants to Congress ? wants and wishes 
w^hich gratitude and policy should have an- 
ticipated, rather than evaded. And have 
you not lately in the meek language of in- 
treating memorials, begged from their jus- 
tice, what you could no longer expecl from 
their favour ? how have you been answer- 
ed ? let the letter which you are called to 
consider to-morrow make the reply. 

IF this then be your treatment, while the 
swords you wear arc necessary for the de- 


fence of America, what have you to expect 
from peace when your voice shall sink, and 
your strength dissipate by division ? when 
those very swords, the instruments and 
companions of your glory shall be taken 
from your sides, and no remaining mark of 
military distinctions be left, but your marks, 
infirmities, and scars ? can you then consent 
to be the only sufferers by this revolution, 
and, retiring from the field, grow old in pov- 
erty, wretchedness, and contempt ? can you 
consent to wade through the vileness of de- 
pendency, and owe the miserable remains of 
life to charity, which has hitherto been spent 
in honour ! — if you can — go — and carry with 
you the jest of tories, and the scorn of 
whigs ; the ridicule, and what is worse, the 
pity of the world. Go, starve, and be for- 
gotten ! but if your spirit should revolt at 
this y if you have sense enough to discover, 
and spirit sufficient to oppose tyranny, what- 
ever garb it may assume ; whether it be the 
plain coat of republicanism, or the splendid 
robe of royalty ; if you have yet learned to 
discriminate between a people and a cause ; 
between men and principles — awake — attend 
to your situation, and redress yourselves. 
If the present moment be lost, every future 



■effort is in vain ; and your threats then v.ill 
be as empty as your entreaties now. 

I v/ouLD advise you, therefore, to come 
to some final opinion, upon v/hat you can 
bear, and what you will suffer. If your de- 
termination be in any proportion to your 
wrongs, carry your appeal from the justice 
to the fears of government. Change the 
milk and water style of your memorials j as- 
sume a bolder tone ; decent, but lively, spir- 
ited, and determined ; and suspecl the man 
who would advise to more moderation, or 
longer forbearance. Let tv/o or three men 
who can feel as well as write, be appointed 
to draw up your late remonstrance ; for I 
would no longer give it the soothing, soft, 
unsuccessful epithet of memorial. — Let it re- 
present, in language that will neither dishon- 
our you by its rudeness, nor betray you by 
its fears, v/hat has been promised by Con- 
gress, and what has been performed ; how 
long and how patiently you have suffered — 
how little you have asked ; and how much 
of that little has been denied. Tell them 
that, though you v/cre the first, and would 
wish to be the last to encounter danger : that 
though despair itself can never drive you in- 

j^S ArrrKDix. 

to dislionour, it may drive you from the 
field ; that tlic wound often irritated, and 
never healed, may at length become incura- 
ble — ^and that the slightest mark of indignity 
from Congress now, must operate like the 
grave, and part you forever — that in any 
political event, the army has its alternative. 
If peace, that nothing shall separate you 
from vour arms but death. If war, that 
courting the auspices, and inviting the di- 
rection of your illustrious leader, yoii will 
retire to some yet unsettled country, smile 
in your turn, and " mock when their fear 
cometli on.'* But let it represent also, that 
should they comply with the request of your 
late memorials, it would make you more 
happy, and them more respectable. — That 
while the war should continue, you would 
follow their standard to the field ; and that 
when it came to an end, you would with- 
draw into the shade of private life, and give 
the world another subjedt of wonder and ap- 
plause ; — an army viflorious over its enemies-^ 
'vi6forious over itself. 




[i:.iMEDi.»T£LY on the circulation of the foregoing address, the 
commander in chief issued an official order, convening the 
general and ii eld officers at the new building, to hear the re- 
port of the commissioners from the army to Congress, and to 
devise what further measures ought to be adopted, as the most 
rational, and best calculated to attain the just and important 
object in view. In this meeting, which was fully attended by 
the general and field officers,by one officer from each company, 
and by a suitable representation of the staff — the commander 
in chief thus addressed the army j ^ 


ijY an anonymous summons, an at- 
tempt has been made to convene you to- 
gether. How inconsistent with the rules of 
propriety, and how subversive of all order 
and discipline,let the good sense of the army 
judge I 

IN the moment of this summons, anoth- 
er anonymous production \va5 put into cir- 
culation, addressed more to the feelings and 
passions than to the reason and judgment of 
the army. The author of the piece is intl- 
tled to much credit for the goodness of his pen ; 
and I could wish he had as much credit for 
the rectitude of his heart ; for, as men see 
through difficulties, and are induced by the 
reflecling faculties of the mind, to use dif- 


fercnt means to att;iin the same end, the au- 
thor of the piece sliould have had more 
cliarity than to mark for suspicion, the man 
who should recommend moderadon and 
longer forbearance, or, in other words, who 
sliould not think as he thinks, and acl as he 
advises. But he had another plan in view, 
in which candour and liberality of sentiment, 
regard to justice, and love of country, have 
no part ; and he was right to insinuate the 
darkest suspicions to effeci: the blackest de- 
signs. That the address is drawn with great 
art ; that it is intended to answer the most 
insidious purposes ; that it is intended to 
impress the mind with an idea of premedi- 
tated injustice to the sovereign pov/er of the 
United States, and rouse all those resent- 
ments which must unavoidably fiov/ from 
such a belief ; that the first mover of this 
scheme, Vvdioever he may be, intended to 
take advantage of the passions, while they 
were warmed with the recolledion of past 
distresses, without giving time for cool de- 
liberate thinking, and that composure of 
mind which is necessary to give dignity and 
stabiUty to measures, is rendered too obvi- 


ons, by the mode of conducing the business, 
to need other proof than a reference to th- 

Tiiu di, gentlemen, I have thought 

it incumbent on me to observe to vou, to 
shew upon v/hat principles I opposed the 
hasty, irregular meeting Vvdiich was pro- 
posed to be held on Tuesday last, and not 
because I v/anted a disposition to give you 
every opportunity, consistent with your 
ov/n honour, and the dignity of the army 
to make known your grievances. If my 
conduct heretofore, has not evinced to you, 
that I have been a faithful friend to the ar- 
my, my declaration of it at . this time would 
be equally unavailing and improper. But as 
I was among the first \\ ho embarked in the 
cause of our common country, as I have nev- 
er left your side one moment, but when 
called from you on public duty ; as I have 
been the constant companion and witness of 
your distresses, and not amongst the last to 
feel and acknowledge your merits ; as I have 
ever considered my own military reputation 
as inseparably connected v/ith that of the 
army ; and my heart has ever expanded with 
joy, when I heard its praises, and my indig- 



nation has riscTi, v.iicn the mouth of detrac- 
tion has b'jw.i opened against it, it can scarce- 
ly be supposed at this last stage of tlie war, 
tliat I am indilF^rent to its interests. But 
how are they to be promoted ? the way is 
plain, says the anonymous addresser. " If 
war continues, remove into the unsettled 
country, there establish yourselves, and leave 
an ungrateful country to defend itself." But 
whom are they to defend ? our wives, our 
children, and our farms, and other property 
which we have left behind us ? or in this 
state of hostile separation, are we to take the 
two first (the latter cannot be removed) to 
perish in a wilderness with hunger, cold, 
and nakedness ? If peace takes place, " never 
sheathe your swords," says he, " until you 
have obtained full and ample justice." This 
dreadful alternative of either desertinir our 
country in the extremest hour of her dis- 
tress, or turning our arms against it, which 
is the apparent object, unless Congress can 
be compelled into instant comphance, has 
something so shocking in it, that humanity 
revolts at the idea. My God ! what can 
this writer have in view, by recommending 
such measures ? can he be a friend to the ar- 


Iny ? can he be a friend to the country r 
rather is he not an insidious foe ? some em- 
issary, perhaps, from Nev/york, plotting the 
ruin of both, by sowing the seeds of discord 
and separation between the civil and military 
powers of the continent ? and what a com- 
pliment does he pay to our understandings, 
when he recommends measures, in either al- 
ternative, impracticable in their nature ? 
but here, gentlemen, I will drop the curtain, 
because it would be as imprudent in me to 
assign my reasons for this opinion, as it 
v/ould be insulting to your conception, to 
suppose you stood in need of them. A mo- 
ment's reflection will convince every dispas- 
sionate mind of the physical impossibility of 
carrying either project into execution. There 
might, gentlemen, be an impropriety in my 
taking notice, in this address to you, of an 
anonymous production ;*but the manner in 
which this performance has been introduced 
to the army, the effect it was intended to 
have, together with some other circum- 
stances, will amply justify my observations 
upon the tendency of that ^^Titing. 

WITH respect to the advice given by the 
author, to su?pcct the man -who shall recom- 


mend moderation and longer forbearance, i 
spurn iljos every who regards that liberty 
and reveres tlic justice for v/hich we con- 
tend, undoul^tedly must ; for, if men are to 
be precluded from offering their sentiments 
on a matter v/hich may involve the consider- 
ation of mankind, reason is of no use to us. 
The freedom of speech may be taken away, 
and dumb and silent we may be led, like 
sheep to the slaughter. I cannot in justice 
to my own belief, and v/hich I have great 
reason to believe is the intention of Congress, 
conclude this address, without giving it as 
my decided opinion, that that honorable bo- 
dy entertain exalted sentiments of the servi- 
ces of the army, and from full conviction of 
its merits and sufferings, will do it complete 
justice : that their endeavours to discover and 
establish funds, have been unv/earied, and 
will not cease till they have succeeded, I have 
not a doubt. 

BUT like all other large bodies, where 
there is a variety of different interests to rec- 
oncile, their deliberations are slovv^ Why 
then should we distrust them ? and in con- 
sequence of t?iat distrust, adopt measures 
which would cast a shade over that glory 



which has been so justly acquired, and tar- 
nish the reputation of an army which has 
been celebrated through all Europe for its 
fortitude and patriotism ? and for what is 
this done ? to bring the objecl we seek for 
nearer ? no, most certainly, in my opin- 
ion, it will cast it at a greater distance. For 
myself, and I take no merit in giving the as- 
surance, being induced to it from principles 
of gratitude, veracity, and justice, a grateful 
sense of the confidence you have ever placed 
in me, a recollection of the cheerful assist- 
ance and prompt obedience I have experi- 
enced from you, under every vicissitude of 
fortune, and the sincere affeclion I feel for 
an army I had so long the honour to com- 
mand, Vvdll oblige me to declare in this pub- 
lic and solemn manner, that in the attain- 
ment of complete justice for all your toils 
and dangers, and in the gratification of eve- 
ry wish, so far as may be done consistently 
with the great duty I owe my country, and 
those powers I am bound to rcspccl, you 
may freely command my services to the ut- 
most of mv abilities. 

WHILE I give you these aiisuraiiccs aiici 
pledge myself in the most unequivocal 


iicr to exert uuaicvcr ability I am possessed 
of in your fa\'our, let me entreat you, gen- 
tlemen, on your part, not to take any meas- 
ures, which, viewed in the calm light of 
reason, will lessen the dignity and sully the 
glory you have hitherto maintained. — Let 
me request you to rely on the plighted faith 
of your country, and place a full confidence 
in the purity of the intentions of Congress, 
that previous to your dissolution, as an ar- 
my, they will cause all your accounts to be 
fairly liquidated, as directed ia, the resolu- 
tions which were published to you two days 
ago, and that they will adopt the most effec- 
tual measures in their pow^r to render am- 
ple justice to you, for your faithful and mer- 
itorious services. And let me conjure you 
in the name of our common country, as you 
value your own sacred honour, as you re- 
spect the sacred rights of humanity, and as 
you regard the military and national charac- 
ter of America to express your utmost hor- 
ror and detestation of the man, who wish- 
es, under any specious pretences, to overturn 
the liberties of our country, and Vv^ho wick- 
edly attempts to open the fioodgates of civil 
discord, and deluge our rising empire with 



BY thus determining, and thus aclino-, 
you will pursue the plain and dirccl road to 
the attainment of your wishes ; you will de- 
feat the insidious designs of your enemies, 
who are compelled to resort from open force 
to secret artifice. You will o-ive one more 
proof of unexampled patriotism aud patient 
virtue, rising superior to the pressure 
of the most complicated sufferings ; 
and you will by the dignity of your con- 
duct, afford occasion for posterity to say, 
when speaking of the glorious examxple you 
have exhibited to mankind, " had this day 
been wanting;, the world had never seen the 
last stage of perfe<5tion to v/hich human na- 
ture is capable of attaining." 


Head Quarters, Newburgh, 
March 15, 1783. 

[HIS excellency the commander in chief having withdrr.\vn,tht 
following resolutions were mowed by generals Kncx nnd Puinjm, 
and adopted by the meeting : — '• lic'soIwJAhat the unanimousthanks 
of the GiTicers ot tlie army, be presented to the commander in 
chief for his cicellcnt address, and the communications he has 
been pleased to make to them ; and to assure him, ihat the of- 
ficers reciprocate his atrcCtionatc expressions, vith the greatest 
sincerity of which the hi:man heart is capable :" — " Resolved^ that 



at the commcnccincKt of the war, the ofticers of tlic American^ 
Army cnnngcd in the service of their country from the purest love 
and attachment to the rights and liberties of human nature ; which 
motive still exists in the highest degree ; and tliat no circumstance 
of distress or danjer,shall induce a conduct that may tend to sully 
the reputation and glory which they have acquired, at the price 
of their blood, and eight years faithful service.** — " Resolved, that 
the army continue to have an unshaken confidence in the virtue of 
Congress, and their country. " — " Resolved, that the officers of the 
Amcric;m army,vievv with abhorrence, and rejctS); with disdain, the 
infamous propositions contained in a late anonymous address to 
them, and resent with indignation the secret attempts of some un- 
known person to collccSt the oflicers togetlier, in a manner totals 
subversive cf all discipline and good order-"] 



Andrews John 

Abbot Samuel 
Andrews William 
Avers Nathaniel 
Amory Thomas 
Adams Joieph 
Avery John jun. 
Allcu & Tucker 
Atherton A. H. 
Auftin Jofeph 
Ames Jonas 
Ames Aaron 
Andrews James 
Applcton George W. 
Aiken Jofeph 
Amory John jun. 
Allen Jeremiah efq 
Andrews John efq.. 
Alien James A, 
Arclihald Thomas G. 
Applcton Samuel 
Adams Abraham jun. 
Aniorv Thomas U. 2 
Applcton Nathaniel 
Buffey Benjamin 
Barrel Jofeph efq. 
Bulfinch Charles 
Srewfter Oliver 
Uromficld Henry 
3 lake Thomas 
Burchfled James 
Bridge Jofeph 
I3ri2gs iinos jun. 
Blake Martin 
Bingham Caleb 6 

Barge Jofeph 
Bowen Daniel 
Barrett G. L. 4 

Bafs Henry jun, 
Burbcck John 
Briggs Thomas 
Bowen Nathaniel 
33ulunch Samuel 

Blake George efq a 
Brooks P. C. 
Bordman W. H. 
Bordman W jun. 
Bridge Matthew 
Brewer Thomas 
Blanc hard J. W. 
Erindley I-raucis 
Bradlce Samuel 
Barrett George 
Brail sford Norton 
Bates Daniel 4 

Brijnmer Herman 
Blackburn Abner 

Butterficid Abraham 

Balch Jonathan 

Bahcock Adam 2 

Bowdoin James efq. a 

Bacon Jofiah 

Bridge bamuel 

Barrel Jofeph jun. 

Bowers Samuel 

Bryant . bel 

Blanchard G corse 

Bumfttad Jeremiah jun. 

Eaynes John 7, 

Broaders PrifcilU 

Bowers Phineas 

Baz'n Abraham 

Baker John 

Bowman Edmund 

Brad lee John 

Bradlce Thomas 

Bradford William 

Bad<er Daniel 

Bazia John 

Bacon Robert 

Bixby Luther 

Boot &: Pratt 

Bright George 

Barnes Benjamin 

Billings Samuel 

Eoardman Darius 

Ecnn Abraham 

Brown William 

Brown Jofiah 

hurley Thomas % 

Bradbury Charles 

Blake Edward jun. 

Blanchard John 

Bradlce Jofiah 

Bigelow Alahel 

Baker l,uke 

Burroughs George efq. 

Brewer James 

Boit Henry 

Boot Francis 

Br c'lord L. 
Child David 
Crocker Samuel M. 
Copcland Nathaniel 
Chambeilaine Rjchard 
Coverly Samuel 
Chrk George 
Callender Jofeph 
Callender William 
Carnes John 
Cooper Samuel 
Collins John 
Church Edward 
Cruft Hannah 
Campbell James 
Cufliing Henry 
Clark Humphrey 
Crocker Mathias 
Clarf-k Nathaniel 
Creafe John 
Creafe Samuel 
Clark Simpfon 
Crosby Joel 
Coatcs Benjamiu 
Carnev Daniel 
Clark WiUard 
Cottin'T U. 
Codman Stephen 
Coolidge Cornelius 



Cufliing Samuel 
Crane Abijali 
Carlcr John 
Cravatli l.cmutl 
Caiicndcr Thomas 
Cockran ' illiain 2 
Cli Jofcph 
Crocker Alien 
Cldand William 
Codman John 
Cook Ifracl 
Claike Saniuel 
Cornwall J. G. 
Clarke Jolm 
Cazneau Edward jun. 
Callcnder Benjamin 
Cunningham Robert 
Calle.ider Jofcph jun. 
Cordis Thomas 
Cufliing John 
Campbell James 
Clark Thomas 
Cooper vSamuel efq. 
Cobi) Benjamin 
Curtis Thomas 
Cunningham Ceorge 
Clapp William 
Dolliver Peter 
Dow Weare 
Dennie Thomas z 
Dexter Do(ft. Aaron 
Davits Lucy 
Dehon William 
Dinfmore William 
Duick Benjamin 
Doyle W. M. S. 
Davis Thomas efq. 
Davis iiliphalst 
Davenport Addington a 
Dix Jofeph 

Dickinfon Thomas efqz 
Delano Benjamin 
Dow les Lydia 
Don Jofeph H. 
Dewhurfl Henry 
Dencii Lawfoii 
Dyer Jeremiah 
Dyer John D. 
Dawfon James 
Davenport Samuel D. 

Davis Amafa 
Drew Job 
Durant Cornelius 
Davi!» Charles 
Davis Jolhua 
Duncan Lt. G.W. 
Evans Robert 
Eaton \^'illiam B, 
Ellis J.ibez 

Elliot Rev, John D D. 
Emmons Nathaniel 
F.mcrfon Rev. W. 
Ellifon James 
Ellifon William jun. 
Elliot Maj. G. Simon 2 
Ernes l.uthtr 
Fofdick Jofeph 
Fox John 
Farley Abel 
Fitch Jeremiah 
Freeman Nathaniel 
Freeman Watfon 
Farley Ebtnczer 
FefTenden Benj. jun. 
Fofter Nathaniel a 

Freeman Conftant 
Fofler James H. 
Fleet. John jun. 
Farnum Rufus 
Fowic Jofiah 
Furnefs Wlliam 
Fales & Keith 
Fuller Stephen jun. 
FarwcU Oliver 
Freeman Rowland 
Fielden Thomas 
Farmer William 
Fofter Jofeph 
Foxcroft Tofeoh E. 
Fofter James 
Field Jofeph 
Francis Ebcn^zer 
Fowle Henry 
Furber Thomas 
Gardner Samuel efq. 
Goldfburv Samuel X 
Guirey Nitham 
Gilbert John 
Godfrey Thomas 
Gore Stephen 

Goodalc Nathan 
Goodalc Amos 
Gooch James a 

Goddard Nathaniel 3 
Greenwood W. P. 
Greenlcaf Thomas 
Geyer J. W. 5 

Gair Jofeph 
Gorham Stephen efq 3 
Gray S. 

Gray Edward jun. 
Hall Jofeph efq. 
Hurd Jofeph 
Howe Thomas 
Harris Teach 
Hamn.att H. H. a 

Homer Andrew 
Hawkins Samuel 
Harris William 
Homes B?rzillai 
Hawkins Benjamin 12 
Homer Benjamin 
Hubbard Henry 
Herring Ebcnezer 
Haltings Jofeph S. 
Haftings Thomas 
Harris John 
Hunnewell Jonathan a 
Hewes Thomas a 

Hyde Jolhua 
Harris Jofeph 
Hufe Enoch ^ 
Holden William 
Hammond Afa 
Hamoek Charles 
Hinkley Abigail 
Hearfey John 
Hatch Ifrael 
Homer William 
Hale John 
Hunt Mathcw M. 
Hoffman John 
Hagger Benjamin K. 
Hagger Jonas 
Hale Timothy 
Haw'kes Levi 
Hachborn Benjanilu 
Haven William 
Hammatt John B. 
Homes Robert 



Hall Stephen 
Harrington Abtl 
Holden Edward 
Hall William 
Haftings Samuel 
Howland Benjamia 
Harris Samuel 
Howe Stephen 
Hutit Samuel V\''. 
Hodgdon Benja. jun 
Homer Jacob 
Jutau John 
Jeffries John dodVor 
Jones David 
Johnfon Jofeph 
Johnfon Edward 
Jennings William 
Jones i". K. 
Joy B. 
Joy John jun. 

Johnfon Nathaniel 

Jackfon Thomas 

Jaclvfon Jonathan 

Jones hon. ^ . C. 

Jarvis John 

Johnfon William 

Ingalls Daniel 

Kendal Thomas 

Keating John 

King Gedney 

Knapo Jofiah 

Kettell Andrew jun. 

Kuhn Jacob 

Kirkland rev. '. T. 

Knapp George 

Kneeland William 

Loring Jofliiia 

Lincoln Mitchcl 

Lillie Thomas 

Loring James 

Luprian John 

I^awrence Afa 

Lucas Joliah 

Loring James T 

Loring Mathew 

Lerebour J. B. 

Lincoln David 

Loring John 

Lakin David 

Levering Jofeph jun 

Lewis Thomas 

Lovering William 

Ladd William jun. 

Leighton Elizabeth 

Lyman Theodore 4 

Lambert William 

Lawrence Ihomas 

Lane John M. 

Latlirop John efq. 
. Lovett Wilh'am 2 

Langford Arthur 

Loring Caleb 

Lane George 

Lovering John 

Malon hon. Jona. efq. 

Mackay William jun. 

Marflon David L. 
4 A'liller Samuel 
a May col. Jofeph 

May Samuel Z 

Melville Allen 

Mar ill all Joliah 

Morrill James 
2 Mackay M. Tertius 

Munfon Ifrael 

Manning William 2 

Meffioger Henry 
Merckel John H. 
Meflinger capt. Daniel 
M'lane Edward 
Meriam Nathaniel 
Meria'm John 
Milk John 
Molincaui Robert 
Milne Andrew 
Mackay William 
Major Frederick W. 
Merry Jonathan 
Merry Daniel 
Murphey Henry 
Munroe Edward 
Morfe Samuel 
Alarflon John 
May John Z 

Mackay Mungojun. 
Magee Bernard 
Minot Chriftopiier 
Moor Samuel 
Mouhon Ebenez(.r 
rJurray rev. J. 

Ni'icr. Charles 

Niclu)Is l-'crkins 

Newell Jofeph 

Neil Thomas 

Norwood Samuel 

Newel Andrew 

Nolen Hervey 

Oden John 

Otis I homas 

Otis George 

Oakman tbenczer 

Oliver William 

Oliver f . J. 

Parker Samuel P, 

Pomeroy Zadock 

Powell Jofeph 

Porter Jacob 

Poor IVlofes 

Parfons Gorham 

Peirce Jc feph 

Pope Lemuel jun. 

Peirce Levi 

Parke Mathew 

Purkett Henry 

Penniman S. & J 

Pope Jofeph 

Packard Charles 

Pratt Nathan 

Penniman William 

Perkins James z 

Terkins Ifaac 
Palmer capt. W. L. 
Parfons Nehemiah 2 
Porter William 
Pollard Benjamin 
Perkins c.>l. Thomas i 
Park(.r John 4 

Powcl William efq. 5 
Phillips Wiliiam efq. 3 
barker John W 
Prince capt. Samuel 
Palfrey William 
Piper Nahum 
Popkin rev. J S. 
Phillips Nathan 
Perkins T. H. a 

Parfons William a 
Perkins James i 

Prince James 
Paine George 



Poor Moses 
Parfons I£l)cn jun. 
Rdu'c Hannah 2 

Rich Obarliih jiin. 
Rult \<^iMi,!m 
Ru<;;^lcs Samiu-I 
Kichardlon William 
Rice John 
Richardi Nathaniel 

Runcy Robert 

Read Jofcph 

Ripley Jofcph 

Richards Jofcph 

Rcnaiid A. 

Ruffcli Jofcph efq. 2 

Rogers Daniel D. 

K.OWC Jofcph 

Richards Elizabeth 

Revere Jofhua 

Ror'crs b. 

Read Sampfon 

Roulllone Michael 

Roberts Jofiah 

Rand dodt. Tfaac 

RJel;ardfon Jcflrcy 

Smith George 

Storer Ebenczer efq, 

Scars David 4 

Spooncr dodl. William 
•Sullivan James efq. 
Sigourncy Elifha 
Scollay William 
Shhnmin William 
Smith N. 
Sawyer Artemas 
Smith Samuel 2 

Sargent capt. Daniel 2 
Sargent Maj John T. a 
Sumner Benja^jin , 

Smith William 
Sturgis Ruflellefq. 
Sumner Samuel 
Sigourney Andrew 
Snow Jolliua 
Stedman Jofiah 
Svvaji Jol'hua 
Symmes Ebenezer 
Stackpole Wilham j Z 
Salifbury Samuel " a 
Scholtz John G. 

Siinonds Benjamin 
Swett SimucI 
: Sewall Juleph 
Story William 
Swau 'i'nomas 
Smith Adam 
Seuddcr Daniel 
Siurgii Samuel 
Stutfou Samuel 
Snow Prince iun. 
Singleton James C 
Siller Richard 
Smith John 
Seaver Naihanid 
Smith & rurncr 
Sanger Jcffec 
Sinimous Thomas 
Sigourney Darnel 
Skinner William S. 
Smith Btnjamm jun. 
Salifbury S. jun. 
Sullivan J, L. 
Stoddard David 
Tl-aycr Minot 
Tliwing Samuel jun. 
Thompfou Jofiah 
Tichnor Elilha 
Town fend David 
Tucker & Thayer a 
Tuckermaii Guftavus 
lYler David 
Tuckerman Edward jr 
Tucker Besa 
Torrey Jofeph 
Tilefton Lemuel 
Tyler Ifaac 
Trott Andrew jO. 
Thayer Amafa 
, Tuck Samuel G. 
Treat Robert 
Tucker Richard D. 
Tyler Jofcph 
Thayer David 
Tilden Jofeph jun. 
Thayer Maj. S. M. - 
Tilden B. L. 
Taylor John 
Turner William 
Tudor William efq. 
Tillotfton Daniel 

1 iiomas dodb Jofhua 
Tufts Ebi-ntzer 
Thayet- Nathaniel 
Tiriver Moles 
Thayer Richard 
Thayer John 
Thwing James 
Vole Betky E 
Vinton Jofiah jun. 
Vofe Charles 
Voax Thomas 
Varney Benjamin 
Vofe Jolhva 
Vollentine Nathaniel 
Whitney Amos 
Whiting George 
W.itfon Gforge Z 
Wakefield Terence 
Watc-s John 
Waters J. jun. 
Wells Seth 
Welch John N. 
Wells Arnold jun. a 
Watfon Marltim 3 
Whiting Ruggles 
Winthrop John jun, 
Wells Benjamin T. 
Webb Nathan 
Wheelwright Job 
Webfter Redford 
Welfli doa. Thomas 
, Wade Ebenezer 2 
Woodward Smith 
Weld Daniel 
Willard Jfofiah 
Williams Thomas 
Weft Nathaniel P. 
Whitman Davis 
Wright Edmund 
Winthrop Thomas L. 
Wiggin Btnjamin 
White Ebenezer 3 
Wilingtou Jonathan 
Winflow gen. John 
Wild Abraham 
Warren do<£t. John 
Winfliip Amos 
Wells Ebenezer 
White Ifaac 
White Cornelius 


Whltwcll William 
Whipple doa. Jofeph 
Winlhip Stephen 
Whitney Ezra a 

Wait Joim 
Wheeler Mofcs 
Williams John D. 2 

Applctcn William 
Andrews Jv.uathan jun. 
Alhcon Richard 
Allen capt. Edward juQ 
Appleton John 
Barker John 
Eodcn Wslliam jun. 
Brooks Samuel 
Barn-sl homas jua. 
Blacklerjohn C. 
Beckford Ebenr. cfq 
Bacon Jacob 
Beckford Anne 
Barnes Jameir jun. 
Barr Robert 
Briggs Enos 
Blanchard Benjamin 
Blanchard Samuel 
EeutleyRcv. W. 
BuSlngton Cant. John 
Bancroft WiHiam 
BeckFord Jonathan 
bi^elow William 
BufTum Samuel 
BufFum JoQiua 
Surrill Alden 
Butman Tliphalet 
Bray Daniel 
Buruham John 
Barnard 1 horaas 
Babbidge J. 
Bacon William 
Eoit John 
Cabot William 
Crols George C. 
Crofs Jofeph 
C:ro\vninllueid captC 2 
Clark John 3d 
Cleaveland W. jun. 
Collins Tracy 

Curwan Samuel 
Clark Daniel 
Cleaveland Charles 
Clark capt. Iknry 
Carpenter Benjamin 
Carncs capt. Joaadian 
Collins capt Juuu 
Chandler John 
Dalaud Ihoiudikcjun 
Daland juhu 
Dodge Pickering 
Deau George 
Derby John 
Dadgc Iirael jun. 
Dod^e Benjamin 
Derby K- H. 

Fell Benjaiain 
Feit G. W. 
Frye Daniel 
ForreRer capt , Simon 
Feano Joi'eph 
Fairiitld capt. John 
Folter capt jolm 
Gwinn I'haddLUS 
Goud James 
Gray bamuel jun. 
Grafton Jolliua 
Giay juiiu 
Gardner capt, John 
Gray \\''iUiam S. 
Graiton capt. W. 
Glover John 
Hillcr jolcph 
Hobart Noah 
liarvY Amos 
iiarriiigtou Eliflia 
iiaullcr George 
Hauiornc Joleph 
Hawks Benjamm 
Ingeilol capt. J. 
Jttiry James 
jounlba Micajah 
Jenks John 
KiOg jame? 
luiight Elifna 
1 ambert Samuel 
Lang Dr. E. S. 
Laurence capt. Abel 

Lander capt. Bonjanuft 
Lander capt. F..ler 
Lee 'ih( masjun. 
Motcy John 
Mtrriam William 
Maxcy Levi 
Mafon capt. Jor.n. jun. 
Manning Kich'd. jun. 

. IJichoU David 
Nichols capt.lchabod 
NciU capt John 
Uaboin iittphcn 
Ofgoud Jofeph 
Orne capt William 7, 
Ofgood liaac cfq. 
Oi \\z Jofiah 

Oliver W. W. 2 

Ofgood capt John 
Pickmau Beuja. efq. 3 
Pritchard John 
Prince Henry 
r^eirce capt. Daniel 
Putnam Samuel efij 
Pickman Wm efq 3. 
Page capt Daniel 
Piummer Erutllus A 
Putnam Barth'w. efq 
Putnam capt John 
Proclor capt Daniel Z 
Putnam Ebcnezer 
Porter Dudley 
prince capt John jun 
Pecle capt jonathau 
Perkins Jofeph efq 
Peabody capt Jofeph 
Peirce jcrathmcel 
Perkins capt I'lioinas 
Peirce Nathau 
Poole Ward 
Ropes Samuel 
Richardfon Jufiah 
Read Daniel 
Rudcapt Henry 
Ropes D:ivld 
kced Nathan 
Ruirell J.>hn 
R:chardh>n capt. Wm. 
Rithardft.n Jclic 
."-cubic Ji'hu 



Saunders John P 
Scccombc Jofcph 
Stccombc C B 
S^ccombe Ebcnerer 
Seccombc i'homas 
Sccconibe John 
Southu'ick John 
Smith J()n;\than 
Slncl<i:ird Jibed 
Sunnier B. C. 
Sauiiderfon Jacob 
Spra'Mie Jofcpli jun 
.Sauiidors capt D. 
Shillabcr P^hene/er 
Savage Ezckiel 
Smith Klillia 
Spraguc Jofqih cfq 
Saunders Thomas 
■ Silsbee capt Nathan. 
Swctt capt Enoch 
Sawyer James 
Sargent capt F. W. 
Sargent capt Ignatius 
Saviile James 
Somes John 3d 
Somes capt Benjamin 
Say wood William 
Somes Ifaac 
Saywood Daniel 
Stephens Cyrus 
Sawyer Abraham 
Saywood c pt Henry 
TurcU W. B. 
Tcague Nathaniel 
'I'ucker Gideon 
Treadwell John cfq 
Ward William 
Winn Jofcph 
Wiggins Richard 
Woodbury Jofiah 
Wiggins Jofeph 
We(t capt Benjamin 
Webb capt Stephen 
\V ard Samuel 
Ward G. H. 
Waters capt Jofeph 
Weft capt Nathaniel 
Waldo Jonathan tfq 
Wat kins Benjamin 
Webb Michael 

White cap; i-d.vard 
Weft capt jofcph 
2 Ward Edward C. 


Allen Jofeph jun. 

Bates capt, Henry 

Brown Eiifha 

Baker Thomas 

Brown Jonathan 

Burnham Aaron 

Baynton John 

Brown Jonathan 3d 

Baker Jofepli 

Butler John 

Bnrnluim Ehcaezer 

Babion William jun. 

Corey Thomas 
Chellis Gideon 

Collins Daniel efq 

Choate Jofiah 
Choate Adoniram 
Collins Nathaniel 
Currier Adoniram 
Cole Wceden 
Cleveland Rev. Eben'r 
2 ColTin Tucy 

Coffin W 
Cuihing Zenas 
Coflin Peter efq 
Collins Ebenczer H 
Dane William 
Dennis John jun 
Dane John 
Dennifon James 
Dexter Wiiliam 
Davis capt William 
Davis Epes 
2 Dennis John 
Driy James 
Dennifon Ifaac 
Davis George 
Fudger J G 
Fofier capt J 
Forbes Rev Ely 
Fuller cypt J jun 
Farr capt David 
Fuller Rev David 
Fofter Elijah jua 

(ite capt William 
Griffin Nath. 
Gofs capt James 
fiilbert Samuel 
Griffin Jkuics 
Griffin Oliver 
Hayes Daniel 
Ilodgkins Jacob 
Hall Aaron 
Hough B K 
Hardey Samuel 
Harriden David 
Haskell Nath 
HasKell Zebelon 
Haskell Aaron 
Haskell Daniel 
Haskell Stephen 
Haskell capt A 
Haskell Mofes 
Haskell Zebelon jun 
Haskell Wjuu 
Haske'i! rapt John 
Hdj' ^.!cn Joieph 
Harriden John 
Ingerfol Rebecca 

. Ingalls Jofcph 

Johnfon John 

Kin fman William 

Knigsbury Aaron 

Knight Jofeph 

Kingiman capt John 

Knowlton Nchemiah 

Knowlton Mofes 

Kimball David 

Kimball capt Jona. 

Lane Jonachan D 

Lock Jofeph 

Lufkin capt David 

l^ow capt Francis 

Low John jun 

Lane David 

Littlehale Richard 

Low John id 

Lincoln Pritchard 

Littlehale Jofeph 

Lincoln E 

Low John 3d 

Lane W R 

Luskin Thomas 

Luskin William 


Mafon John 

Mcort Thomas 

^'ooe Jofeph 

Mafon I ho mas 

MflJett Thomas jun 

^ansiield James 

Merchant Daniel 

^ewman John 

^orvood Ouftavus 

^orwvTod James 

Oljer JouacUaH 

O ikes i homas 

^ikes John jun 

Parfons cant Thomas 

Pi odtor Ifaac 

■f*clham Thomas 

P 'ole Major Mark 

^carce capt David 

Piindall Eliakim 

Parlons Obed 

Parfons capt Sam'l jun 

Parfons capt A rou Crandon B.njamln 

Tu.ker caiu John 
Tucker W. efq. 
•Tanoan cap:. J 
WhirfFcapt. Ifaac 
Woodbury capt. JolLiia 
Wallace David 
Whittcmore Samuel efq. 
Warner Danle! efq. 
Wharff capt. David 
Wnrner capt. Nathl. 
Wehber capt. J. jun. 
White capt. Henry 
Whittred>^e O.. S. 
Whalen Michael 
Woodbury Nathaniel 
Whittredge Richard 
Wtbbcr capt. Benju. 
Weft Benjamin 


Pa'-fono Nath 
Pear Andrew 
Peirce capt. W- jun. 
Peirfon W. efq. 
Prindall Eldad 
Piumier Aaron 
Proc\or Benjamin 
Phelps H^nry 
Rowe John efq. 
Rogers J- hn 
Rogers Timothy 
Robbins Philiemore 
Ru ft, capt John 
Rogers William 
Rogers capt. C 
Rogers J. G.efq. 
R6\t? Maj. John 
Rowe Willian\ 
Sargent David 
Sargent Abimelech 
Sargeat Jonathan 
S(aiTVi'£)^d Zcbulun 
SteeF John 
SaviliC Thomas 
Sargent Winthrop 
S;ir^>ent Guftavus 
Saiith Jacob 

Cotton Rofleter 
Crombie W. jun. 
Crandon C. 
Drew B'jnjamin jun. 
Drew Lemuel jun. 
Duncan David 
Davis William 
Dunbar John D- 
Dike Anthcmy 
Goodwin William 
Goodwin Timothy 
Holmes EKazer 
Hodge B'lrn abas, jun. 
Haywood Nathan 
Harlow Southwiok 
Jackfon William 
Jackfon Charles 
Jackfon Thomas jun. 
J.ickfon Johnfca 
Janes ''anuiel 
Kendall James 
Lothrop Nathaniel 
Morton Lemuel 
Patv John 
Richardfon R R. 
Ruflell Nathaniel 
Srymuur Benjamin 
S^iooner Ephraii^a 

Thachcr James 
Thomas Jofliua 
Trua Jofeph 
Torrev John 
Tufts Jonathan 
Weld Jabez & co. 
Watfon William 
WethrcH Thomas jun. 
Wi.iting Benjamin 
Wcthrell Thomas 


Elackm^n James 
Badlam Ezra 
Bowman W. efq. 
Biiker Edmund 
Badlam Stephen jun. 
Blake Eaus 
Crehore Samuel 
Ciap Samuel 
Capen Ebenezer 
Clap Jofeph 
Davenport Ebenezer 
Davenport Samuel 
Davenport capt. Jame* 
Davenport Daniel 
Eaton capt. Pearfun 
Everett Mofcs 
Glovcr Samuel 
Hawes Jeffe 
Huwe Ifaac 
Hall Richard 
How Abraham 
Hcarfey J 
Hawes William T. 
Jicobs Benjamin 
Leeds Daniel A. M. 
Lewis James 
Leeds Alexander 
Pciree Stephen 
Prefton Jolin 
Peirce col . Samuel 
Robinfon James 
P-obinfon Maj. Jamr- 
Richards Samuel 
Sanderfon Ifaac 
Sinmion- Bi.njamin 
Sunmer William 
Tikilou Euclid 



Tower r^Aniel 
Thayer Arudi 
"yolman Ehcncrcr 
T.ifliirSamnH A M. 
■VVilliaMis John 
^\'illin;;ton Khcnczcr 
Wiihington Edward 
\V'ithini;r(>n S.i niicl 
Walker Wilh'am 
■Whitney ATofcs 


Bowcn Nathan 
Bond Jcilui 
Blacker C W 
Barker Joftph 
Bddcn William 
Bartlctt Samuel 
Ducy John 
Ucvereaux Samuel 
Elkins Thomas 
Gerry Samuel R 
Goodwin John 
Graves Ebenezcr 
Hooper William 
Hooper Nathaniel 
Hooccr Robert 
Hafkell Thomas 
Hooper Samuel 
Hooper Benjamin jun 
Lewis Edmund 
Lcc William R 
L-ce Samuel 
Martin Knoft 
Mansfield Ifjiac 
Orne Joflaua 
Prentifs Jofiiua 
Prince Richard 
Reed William 
Story Ifaac 
Story Eliflia 
Sparhawk John 
Tedder John 
Wilfou Jofeph 
Waite John 

JVALPOLE^ ,(n. h.) 

Allen gen. Amafa 
Alker Thomas 

ijiillard maj. Afa i 
B'-i!ows Joff-ph jun 

Belcher John 

Bfunctt Mof"c3 

Bfllows Rofwcll 

Bellows i hoinart^ cfq 

Cunningham John 

C'.iambcrlain H V 

Drew Thomas C 

Eikins Harvey 

FcfTcnden Rev Tho's. 

Gardner Francis efo 

Lacey Daniel 

M'Hurii) E II 

Rcdington 'i'homas 

Sturtevant Ifaac 

Stone David 

Thomas Alexander efq. 

Vofe Roger cfq. 

KEENE,{n \\) 

Adams Dr Daniel 
Blake Abel capt 
Blake Solomon 
Bond John G 12 

Bachelor Diomas P 
Blake W W 
Cooke Noah efq 
Clarke FeflTenden 
Chapman Daniel 
Crofsiield Amos 
DInsmore Samuel efq. 
Dorr Jofeph 
Eafter brook John 
Edwards Dr. Thomas 
Forbes David efq 
Hall rev Aaron 
Johnfon Mofes 
Lamfon William 4 
Morfe- James 
Maccarty D That^. 
Nevvcomb hon. Daniel 
Nims capt Alpheus 
Prentifs John 
Ralfton James B 
Ralfton Alexander efq 
St ilea Jeremiah efq 
Stiles Jofeph 
Todd major William 


Ad.ims Samuel 
Anderlon Francis 
Bnvman Jonathan jun 
BIytlie Francis 
BloiTom Mathew 
Bradford Aldcn 
Child Rovland 
Crate Thomas M 
Danffyrth Jofliua 
Elwell Robert 
Foye William jun 
Foye John S 
Glidden John 
Hodge James 
Hilton Andrew- 
Hliton Jofliua 
Moffat James 
Minot John jun 
Pike William 
Payfon Jonathan 
Stetfon Jofeph 
Smith Ebenezer 
Sanborn Bradbury 
Tinkham Jofeph 
Tinkham Seth 
Tinkham Spencer 
Thayer Zebediah 
Woood J T 
Wood Abial jun 


Ambrofe Stephen 
Abbot Jofeph 
Abbot Ephraini 
Aycrs Richard 
Abbot Jacob 
Choatc Robert 
Chandler Timoth 
Carrlgain Philip jun. 
Davis John 
Dow Jacob 
Emmons Jacob 
Flagg Ifaac 
Farnum Jofiah . 
Green Nathaniel 
Gain Samuel 
Hough George 



Aldcn Timothy 
Adams Nathaniel efq. 
Bryard Oliver 
Buckminfter Jofeph 
Blunt O. C. 
Chadboum Th. jun. 4 
Cooper W S. 
H^vea [ofeph 
Hill John B. 
Hcndcrfon Jam s 
Ladd Henrv 
JLunt Thomas 
Libhey Jeremiah 3 
MafTv^ Georae inn. 
Peirce Charles i% 
Perry Martin j 

Slade John S. 
Sims Mark 
Tappan Amos 
W;.lkcr Seth 
Wentwt.rth John cfq. 
Walker Wiiiiam 

Arnold Samuel G. 
Arnold James 
Anthony Michael 
Aborn Samuel jnn. 
Aborn Peleg 
Brown Obediah 
Brown Nicholas 
Burglfs Triftram 
Burroughs George K. 
Butler vSamuel jun. 
Brume Benjamin 
Ballon Henry 
Butler C yrua 
Barnes D.L. 
Blodget William 
Brume Al'ca 
Cufliing Nathaniel 
Chaviteau Jofeph 
Carlifle Samuel 
Clark John J. 
Cor Us John 
Carter J' hnjun. 

Dyer Elilha 
Dexter J.)hn S, 
Dexter Edward 
Dorrance John 
Eveleth John 
rarnuni Zcbcdiah 
Fiflier Nathan 
Graves Zephaniah 
Green .Samuel W. 
Hdlfey T. \.. j'ua 
HItchccck Enos 
Hallowell F. A. 
Howell J. B. 
Jonrs Gershom 
Jones William 
iJppctt Moies 
Lathrop Zebediali 
Lawrence Jofeph 
Leonard Ezra jun, 
M Lelian Samuel 
Muraford John 
Ma omber Ebenezer 
Munroe & co. 
Mitchell Mrs. 
Mafon Jofeph 
Mafon Samuel 
Martin Sylvanus G. 
Olncy Chriflopher 
OIney Chriftopher C. 
Pick Jofeph 
Pick William 
Pick Benjamin 
Paine Walter 
Rhodes Zacliariah 
Searle Nathaniel 
Seamans Young 
Smith Benjamin 
Snow War ton 
Smith Henry 
Sheldon Charles 
Tingley Araunah 
Vinton David 
Whipple John 
Wheaton Henry- 
Williams Jchn 
Ward John 
Wheeler John 
Weeden Samuel 


Bacon Henry 
Boyd capt. Jofeph C 
Bagley Abncr 
Cox John 
Frye William R. 
Fox Charles 
Grc^2 rc^'- William 
Goodwin Thomas 
HardinfT Ariflon 
Hopkins James D. 
Hunncwel col. Richard 
Harper Samuel 
Huiibn Wil[iam 
TlHey Hofea 
Illky Henry 
Jenks Elczcr A. il 
Jcnks William jun. 
Jones Enoch 
Johnfon Daniel 
Little Charles 
Leonard Lie it. Nathl. 
Motley Thomas jun. 
Moody Benjamin 
Mooay Nathanl. capt. 
M?.yo capt. Ebenr. 
M ody William 
Aloody William 2d 
Paine Jofiah 6 

Peironnet Thomas 
Peirfon George 
Pratt Nathan 
Parker Hon. Ifaac 
Poor Frye 
Southgate Horatio 
Tucker Jofiah 
Vauohan William J. 
Weeks William C. 
Wadfworth John 
Woodman Jolm 
Waite William 
Weeks Lemuel jun. 


Allen Bartlett 
Bement H. A. 
Larned Simeon 




Aiiboft Rciij.(ri>!n 
Brooks Samuel 
l3aJ.;cr John 
Dtan Julin jmi. 
r.mery Joannii 
KiTK ry >/. 
Tolfom Simeon 
Foeg P( tcr 
CJllman J. T. cHj. 
Gilman J. T. jun. 
Gilman J. S. 
Gilman Nathaniel 
Graves r. R. 
Hale E'.iphalct 
Hutching Ezra 
Lamfon Gideon 
Lawrence Jotham 
Lcavctt Benjamin 
Parker Samuel D. 
Parker William 
Peabody Oliver 
Parker Nathaniel 

Pearfon James 

Read George 

Ranlet Henry 

Ruhinfon Ephralm 

Rowland Wm. F. 

Shepard Benjamin 

Sheriff B. P. 

Smith Jeremiah 

Titcomb Mofes 

Tilton Jofeph 

Tilton Jofeph jun. 

Tilton Henry 

Tenney Sanauel 

Dodge Jabez 

Al.iiun JoMi 
Mctcalf l,\iihcr 
I'rentifs rev. Thomas 
Peters William 
f-'mith Amos 
Towiifend Greg«ry 
Town fend Sarah 
TouMifend Horatio 
Whctlock Seth 


Adams Horatio 
Bradford Walker 
Breck Jonathan 
Baxter John 
EIHs George 
Ellis Abner 
Fifke Jonathan 
Herring William 
Jerauld James 


Atwood Mofes 
Burri!! Joieph 
Blanchard Samuel 
Brickctt David 
Bradley Samuel 
Back Eliphaltt 
Boyle Thomas 
Balch VVefsly P. 
Bradley Enoch 
Cleaveland Parker 
Duncan James jun. 
Emery Samuel 
Fitz Nathaniel 
Greenleaf William 
la Harding JefTe 

Hafeltine James 3d. 
Hill G. W. 
Lebofquctt Eben 
Manfize Simon 
Mullikin Stephen 
Ofgood Timothy- 
Puttee David 
Simpfon James 
Smith Hezekiah 
Simpfon Alexander 
Swett Daniel 
Smiley William jun. 
Smith Jonathan K. 
Sargent Jonathan B. 
Tucker Ichabod 
Wingate Mofes 
White Leonard 
Weft Richard 
Willis B. jun. 

Bronfdon Benjamin 
Bodge Jofeph 
Gardner John 
Pcircc capt . Rufus 
Sloan Peter 
Sumner Jefle 
Smith Ifaac 
Spurrs Samuel H. 
Vofc Betfey Eliot 

Breed Aaron 

Bacon Phincas 
Curtis Solomon 
Cook Benjamin 
Crane Stephen 
Cheney Daniel 
Craft Henry 
Downing James 
Fuller Silas 
Garfield Mofes 
Hyde Charfcs 
Hyde Nathan 
Herring Abfalom 
Hyde George 
Hoogs Wm. jun. 
Jackfon Artemas 
Jackfon Ephraim 
Mills Lukejun. 
Stock John 
Stedman Ebenezer 
Stedman Jofeph jun, 
Stearns Ebenezer 
Stimpfon Samuel 
Wales Benjamin 
Wales Nathaniel 


Newman Gowen B. 

Phelps Robert 

Stearns Eli. 

Stedman William 
Wales Jofeph 
Willard Benjamin W. 
Ward Samuel 
Fairbanks .Jonas 
Thayer N 




Andrews Afa 
Burnham Thomas 
Baker A fa 
Crocker Jofeph 
Coofwell Wade 
Caldwell John yl 
Clinate D^vid 
Coffin Wm.jun. 
Dana Jofoph 
Dana Samuel 
Frifbie Levi 
Jewett Richard D. 
Kidder Ifaiah 
Lord Jofeph 
Manning Thomas 
Smith JoOma 
Swafev Jofeph 
Wallis Mofes 
Williams Benjamin 


Sart lett Jofiah efq. 
Goodwin Edward 
Gorham John 
Jenkins Ifrael 
Jaques Samuel jun, 
Lamfon John efq. 


Aikins Edward 
Bartlett Jofeprh 
Pettibone Auguftus 
Robbins Nath 
Robbins Thomas 


Eowditch G. 
rioyd Phihp 
Kingftjury Afa 
Lyon Peter 
Pratt Samuel 


Abbot Stephen 
Mafon James 
Rhodes Chrirtopher 
Withinfjton Abraliam 


r.rown Henry 
HMbrook E. S. 
lagerfol Jonatlian 


Brown Parker 
Endicott John 
Fowler Samuel jtm, 
Gray James 
Kett'e John 
Ofborn Richard 
Ofborn Jofeph 
Page Samuel 
Page John 
Putnam Eleazer 
Putnam Jcllc 
Prodtor Svlvefter 
Pindar John 
Pindar William 
Putnam Nathaniel 
Poole Fitch 
Sprague Jofeph 
Storrs Nathaniel 
Torrey Jofeph 
Willfon Robert 


Ayers A<lin 
Billing Ixrmu-l 
Baker John W. 
Dows Thomas 
Dudlt-y J.)fepli 
Davis Aaron 
Faxon Elab 
Gore Samuel 
Gridley James 
How James 
Lowell Charles 
Pcirpont Charles 
Sumner William H- 
"Williams Stephen 
Wait Samuel 
Whiting Joel 
Wait Benjamin 
WcldDea. David 


Bixby Daniel 
jun. Perkins David jun. 
Peabody John jun 
Perkins Robert jun. 
Rogers Joel 
Town Jacob 3d 
Town David 


Brcwfler Gen. Ebea. 
Cabot S. C. 
Curtis Col. David 
Clark Benjamin 
Clark Jofeph 
Davis Mofes 
Farrar William 
Freeman Jonatli m 
Freeman lion RuiTell 
Gilbert B. I. efq. 
Lang Richard 
Parks Levi 
Stockbridge David 
Smith r(.v. John 
Thayer Gideon L. 
Woodward maj ^\^ 
Woodward Jonathan 


Billings Stephen 
Daken Samuel 
Freeman J O. 
Phelps Hjiward 
Wells J. M. 


Eurnham James 
Chapman Abner 
Endioctt Robert 
Francis John 
Goodrijje Samuel 
Lee capt. Jofeph 
Porter Billv 


Thatohc-r Stephen 
Traik Bartholomew 
Adams Daniel 



Batcliclder Nathaniel Beverly 

Brown Benjamin jun. do 

Batchcld( r Jufiah do 

Crecfy Henry do 

Davis Thomas jtm. do 

Dike John do 

Fofttr Daniel do 

Furnis WiUiam do 

Fiflur Jofliua do 

Goodridpc William do 

Giles Ehcntzer do 

Ki 1 ha n Abraham do 

Lamfon Francis do 

Leach Nathan do 

Leach William jun. do 

Oliver Jacob do 

Packard Ephraim do 

Stickney Samuel do 

Smith Nehemiah do 

Smith Ebenezer jua. do 

Stephens John do 

Thorndike Henry do 

Thomfon Jacob do 

Treadwell Nathaniel do 

Thorndike Thomas do 

Whittemore Jofeph do 

Whitney Eliflia do 

Waliis Daniel do 

Whittredge Livermorc do 

Worfley James od 

Wallace John do 

EnHin Frederick Bojlon 

Ellis Jonathan do 

Eaton David S, do 

Greene Benjamin jun. do 

Gridley Richard do 

Gookin Samuel do 

Glover Lewis do 

Dow Jabez Kenfington 

Batcheldcr Jeremiah do 

Waterman Thomas Lebanon 

Thayer Ebenezer Braintree 

Smith Jacob Royljlon 

Eaton Jonathan ^uiion 

Holmes Heman Kingfion 

Judkins Mofes do. 

Emerfon Edward Tork 

Sewall Daniel efq. do 

Froft William P. do 

Tibbctsjchn Somcrf'worth 

How rev. P. rlcy Surry 

Wheeler J B. Crufton 

Farnham Benjamin Amiovcr 
Froft William do 

Farrington Philip do 

Lovcjov Nathaniel efq. do 
White T. G. fVi/mi„gt«n N. C. 
Storrs Aaron Ranuo-.f-h 

F.4ircliild Timothy JS'Ofuich 
Willi jtms Joieph tio 

Woodward capt. George do 
Fry G. Wafliington ftyhutgb 
Hubbard Rofwell Sulivan 

Ropes George Oxford 

Fofter John Cambridge 

PomcroyC.W. do 

Kinffbury Eiiflia Aljlead 

Frink Calvin Swanf y 

Brown Benjamin do 

Whitcomb Philemon do 

Whitcomb Abijah ' do 

Fofter Samuel Candla 

Froft George Nortbiwod 

Froft John Durham 

Ham John do 

Richardfon Jofeph do 

Seywood capt. Henry do 

Fofter Stephan Bradford 

Greenough Ebenezer. Canterbury 
Forbes Major Abner Wcndfor 
Greut Benjamin Bekbertoivn 

Willard Herman Stockbrid^e 

Willard John do 

Gilman Alien Hallo-ivell 

Greenwood Abel Framingham 
Gilbert Daniel efq. Enfield 

Green William Idcd-way 

Hopkins Mofes efq. G.Barrhigton 
Whiting John el'n. do 

Hale Enoch IV^ Hampton 

Hall hon. Lott efq. Wefminfler 
Trafk capt. Ifrael C. do 

Waite Lt. Marmaduke do 
Herri ck Daniel Hopklnfoti 

Applcton Jeffe Hampton 

Hyde rev. Alban. Lee 

Ingcrfol William jun. do 

Brvver Eliab elq. Lenox 



Glcren Amafa do 

Bcbje Holca iV. Canaan 
Birftow Dc)<5t Samuel Sbaron 

Bridge Edmund DrefJcn 6 

Lithwow J. N. do 

Bartlett Joft-ph Slrathcm 

Hopkins J. PLUadilpbia 

Shaw W. H. do. 

Butler Benjamin Dscrf.di 

Gould JacoD Jun. Box/or J 

Perkins Eliflia. do 

Kimball Afa do 

Symon Is Jofcph jun. do 
Buxton Samuel N. Yarmouth 

Brown rev^. Clark BrimReli 

Barrett col. John Springjald 
Dsan Aaron CharLfon N. H. iz 

Burlin Jcpthah HcfiUnrrion 

Bowers Andrew Salisbury 

Thompfon TLomas do 

Wilder Luke do 

King John jun, Abington 

Porter Jacob do 

Norton Noah do 

Norton William do 

Bemii I.uke JVafcrto-cn 

Faulkner Francis do 

Hio;ht William Birivhk 

Pearfon Silas Knivburyport 

Reed Daniel Lcivifon 

Dunning D. Brunfu-'ick 

Quinbev Henry do 

Jenks Nathaniel N. Gloucejirr 

Adams Steptien Hamihzn 

Lukeman Nathan do 

Tucker Barnard IVmharn 

Bridge William £itJl-Sndi>ury 

Thomas John Kingjlon 

Bi^elow Barna Brookfield 

Snow Cidcon CorgdurvH 

Brown Jonas efq. IVuIthum 

Cufliiug Jacob do 
Cleaveland Nthemiah Topsfidd 

Dorman Jofcph do 
Thaxter rev. Jofenh M. Vinyard 

Delano Ephraim JVoodivich 

H i 1 1 Je rem i ah BUJeford 

Buttcrfield Erafmus MaWorough 

Stone John do 

Vinal cant. VV. jun. Scltuate 
Clark Scollo tVedminft.r Vcr. 

Dexter Samuel W 
Bigelow iioa. Timothy Gfotoit 

Dana Samfiel do 

Prefcott Samuel J. do 

Coughran Joel J^f^y 

Minot Samuel do 

Davis Mofes E.h:ccmbc 

CI-.afFec Ezra Niitbidford 

Upham Edward N SuUm 

Vofe Solomon efq. Northjield 

Crocker Samuel Taunton 

Leonard Apollos B. do 

Seaburv J. W. do 

Craft.^ David Mancbejier 

Ho( per William do 

Leach Ezekiel do 

Tappan Eben do 

Coolidg^ William Lhrnrore 

Cook Jolcph elq. MiddUhjry 

Chandler John P<.iirshjtm 

Carpenter Afahel HcloLoth 

Ellis Jamcs do 
Chaviteau J. B. & H. Havannab 

Chaponel Anthony Bifcataqua 

Kimball Jacob Topsfidd 

Whitting Nathan iV. Canaan 

Chi Ids Francis Dedbam 

Draper Jofcph do 

Greenwood Ilaac do 

Hiirvcy Jonathan S.iitm 

Iloit Jofcph B. Warner 

Leonard Uliver^efq Qiringtcn 

Lucas Jol.n Drook!^iie 

Lovcjoy J.ifiiua Ivleteditb 
iVIattoun rbenezer jun. Amberji 

M'Clary Michael Bpfon 
Newcomb Richard E. Greenfield 
Mower Levi Royljion Ver. 

Merrill dock. Afa Lempfier 

Merrit Stephen Alford 

Nelfon Job. efq- Cujline 

Norton Samuel Hintbam 

Nclfun Afa liozvlcy 
Rofs Donald Trenton M. 6 

Ofgrod Chriflopllcr BemLioke 

Porter J "U.ilhau E. H,id!f> 

Porccr Huntingti'U l\j: 



Vofc iHiac 


Norton Ichabod 


Sclfridgc Thomas 


Kcllcy Abraham 


Everett David ofq. 


Coflin James 


Thomas, Andrews, 


A If 

Codia Timothy 

A do 

& 80 

> ytioany. 

Oicott Capt. Rofwell 

Athcani capt. W. 


Parkman J. A. 


Spalding Rufus 


Paine Otis 

Foxhot ough 

Smith Benjamin efq. 


Pcabody Benjamin 


Thixter Jofcph 


Peabody Francis 


Cook Thomas cfq. 


Storrs Setli efq. 


Jcrnigan; hon. William cfq 


Stebbs Daniel 


Atliearn hon. James c 



Pinkerton James 


Cottle Shubael efq. 


Paine Seth efq. 

Tunhri dge 

Tilton Daniel 


Read Joel 

Attleboro ugh 

Davis Henry 


Read David 

Sm ithjield 

Peafc Argalis 


Ramfey Thomas S. 


Daggett Timothy 


Rowfon Mrs 

Med ford 

Mayhew deacon Will 



Read Benjamin 


jcrnigan William jun 


Tufts James 


Allen John Jun. 


Rhodes Amos 


Peafe Martin 


Robinfon James 


[The alove Lijl of Suhfcriben, contains all the Names that 'we^e received pre- 
vious io the commiiment of this Jheet io the prefs'^ 


I IX'-V 



i ■ /'V^ 


This book is under no circumstances to be 
taken from the Buildin}«